N paradigm-underlying theory/framework that is the foundation for how you create knowledge; used to talk about different approaches that address research problems. Very different approaches exist for how we go about our methods: qualitative vs. quantitative. Distinction that influences the research questions and the way the research is collected lies within the underlying paradigm. N positivism-applies to a paradigmatic, deductive approach; is measureable; view data as neutral, objective, unbiased. N qualitative and quantitative is an approach in which we go about a paradigm; its like a hierarchy, for e. g. positivist. Measurement: an assessment of a concept; we can measure it with a number; has a measurement tool to assess what we are measuring. We need to understand measurement in order to understand the type of data we need to collect. How we measure, collect, & assess is different depending on the approach and paradigm we use. There is no one method that is better than the other.