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Lecture 8

PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Albert Bandura, Aversion Therapy, Conditioned Taste Aversion


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Russell Day
Lecture
8

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Psych 100 Unit 5 (Chapter 7) Learning
Nature-Nurture
Individual Differences (drinking alchohol is a learned activity)
What is learning?
o A relattively enduring change in an organism’s behaviour (or capability) due to
experience
Change in behaviour (or capablility)
Relatively enduring (tying shoelace)
Due to experience
Able to desmonstrate karate but never had the opportunity to do so
Nonassiciative types of learning (havituation & sensitization)
Types of Learnning?
Classical conditioning
o Pavlov
Operant Conditioning
o Thorndike
o Skinner
(Cognition & Learning?)
Observational Learning
o Bandura
If people can learn, they can become what they want to be, biology does not limit
Pavlov:
What happened?
o Studying physiology of digestion
o Serendiptous finding
o Impications
o No control over it (candy in mouth reflexive response: salavate)
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Why did he think it was important?
o A type of learning was involved
o If you could obtain control?
o Other innate reactions?
Elements of Classical Conditioning (C.C)
o 3 elements
An Unconditioned stimulus
A neutral stimulus (bell to humans: no biological connection to
hunger/eating)
Multiple Pairing
Elements of Classical Conditioning:
UCS Unconditioned Stimulus
o No learning needed
UCR Unconditioned Response
o No control over it (wind blown into eye will result in blinking)
o No learning needed to have a response
CS Conditioned Stimulus
o Was originally a neutral stimulus, through multiple pairings, became a CS
CR Conditioned Response
Parameters of Classical Conditioning:
Acquisition
o 3 elements
Extinction
o Conditioned stimulus alone, makes no Unconditioned stimulus and eventually no
Conditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery
o After a rest
o Response will disappear entirely eventually
Generalization
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o Response to similar stimuli
Discrimination
o Response to a specific stimulus (ex. Phone ringtone)
Timing
o Also, the order of steps (ex. Food first then ringing the bell)
Higher order conditioning
Classical Conditioning:
Application to Humans
o Little Albert
o Creating a sexual fetish
o Aversion therapy
Limitations of Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning
o All animals? Any conditioned stimulus
o Any automatic, reflexive, response?
o Examples:
Instinctual Drift
Preparedness and Phobias (Fears of snakes and spiders = easy, fear of
bananas = difficult)
Taste aversion
Implications:
Certain stimuli only some responses
Involuntary Voluntary behaviours
New Look More Cognitive
o Expectation (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972)
o Blocking
o Sensory preconditioning
o Signal reactions
Instrumental Conditioning:
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