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Lecture 8


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PSYC 100
Sherri Atwood

1 Types of Learning ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING ((CC AND OC)): Classical Conditioning – learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction • occurs when 2 stimuli become associated with one another • after repeated exposure to two stimuli occurring in sequence, we associate those stimuli with each other ◦ eg. Stimulus 1 – see lighting ; Stimulus 2 – hear thunder after repetition – seeing lightning will cause a covering of the ears response Pavlov – Dogs – Found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what was known as NEUTRAL STIMULI ((eg. just seeing food, seeing the dish, seeing the person who brings food, hearing that person's footsteps)) Classical Conditioning – process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response (CR) through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response (US) Neutral Stimuli – stimuli which does not trigger a response Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – stimulus that elicits an innate response in the absence of learning ((eg. food)) Unconditioned Response (UR) – conditional innate response elicited by US ((eg. salivation)) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an US ((eg. bowl associated with food)) Conditioned Response (CR) – a response elicited by a CS DURING CONDITIONING – neutral stimulus repeatedly presented during presentation of the US which elicits an UR AFTER CONDITIONING – neutral stimulus becomes CS which elicits the CR UR and CR are same response triggered by different events ((CR is by conditioning)) NS and CS are same stimulus but difference is whether the stimulus triggers the CR Higher-Order Conditioning – turning a NS into a CS by associating it with another CS ◦ eg. A man who was conditioned to associate joy with coffee, could then learn to associate joy with a restaurant if he was served coffee there every time he walked in to the restaurant. Acquisition – refers to the initial stage of learning/conditioning ◦ What gets "acquired"? – the association between NS and an US ◦ How can we tell that acquisition has occurred? – the UR now gets triggered by a CS Timing – for the association to be acquired, the NS needs to repeatedly appear BEFORE the US 2 Types of Learning The strength of CR grows with conditioning Extinction – the diminishing of a CR • if US stops appearing with CS, the CR decreases Generalization – responding to a CS that is slightly different than the original (related CSs) • adaptive function – animals respond to similar tones in rustling leaves – doesn't have to be identical for them to know there is possible danger Discrimination – loss of generalization – learning to respond to only one specific CS Spontaneous recovery – reappearance of a weakened CR after a pause • suggests that extinction suppresses CR rather than extinguishes it IVAN PAVLOV ◦ conditioning occurs in all creatures ; is related to biological drives and responses ◦ learning can be studied objectively, by quantifying actions and isolating elements of behaviour ◦ substance abuse involves conditioned triggers, and these triggers can be avoided or associated with new responses Immune system responds to classical conditioning – a certain taste accompanies a drug that triggers the immune response, the taste by itself (CS) may come to trigger the immune response John Watson believed that human emotions and behaviours are merely a bundle of conditioned responses (conditioned emotional reactions or CERs) Counter-conditioning – process of pairing a CS with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted CR THORNDIKE – instrumental learning – cats eventually learned to open puzzle boxes to obtain food – gradually eliminated responses that failed to open box and were more likely to perform actions that worked ◦ The Law of Effect – behaviours followed by satisfying consequences were more likely to occur again, and behaviours followed by unsatisfying consequences were less likely to occur again Operant Conditioning – changing behaviour choices in response to consequences • association of responses with specific consequences ◦ eg. learning to ride a bike using strategies that don't make us crash • an act of chosen behaviour is followed by a reward or punitive feedback from the environment ◦ reinforced behaviour is more likely to be tried again ◦ punished behaviour is less likely to be chosen in the fu
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