Tutorial 354 Oct 23
***Theory of the mind.. is it just an involuntary response (reflex) or are they aware they are saying. Bees
and ants not aware of communication. Humans at some age become aware of their communication.
Message vs. Code Model.
Animal communication brings two views of meaning.. 1) meaning being attached to words. Then classically
condition chimps with for example a banana. Didn’t work.
2)Kanzi picked up signs without even being trained (naturalistic approach) This method is similar to infants.
Message model: Get thoughts from one head from another head, do that because meaning is attached to
the words. Problems: Don’t just look and point at things, language doesn’t work this way. Can use same
utterance to mean different things (ie. Sarcasm)
Alternative view of meaning: Already there in the relations, to be present the organism doesn’t have to be
aware. (would explain animal’s communication) Eventually learn how others respond – based on routine.
Characteristics of Animal Communication
Don’t have creativity..
Surface content: same but two meanings ..(in fact anything can have multiple meanings
Deeper level: Linked to two meanings at deeper level]
Chompskylang based on syntax
Is autism language? Psych 354 Oct 30 2013
False beliefs Came from Theory of mind
People will act on beliefs even if they are false
Children ages 35 can pass false belief tests.. signifies adult understanding
Inspired by Piaget .. his interpretation “egocentrism” cant take different perspective. Uses three mountain
Theory of mind uses
1) Unexpected content task (deceptive container, smarties task)
crtiq age one and 2, children have basic understanding of minds, ask mom to leave room, steal
whether this actually gets at an important element of understanding..Different interpretations because
we are privy to different information.. simplistic interpretation.. can also be privy to same information
and still have diff interpretations. Doesn’t need to know about mind, all he has to do is that maxi wasn’t
there so he doesn’t know
2) Unexpected transfer .. mom moves chocolate while boy is outside boy looks for chocolate where he
left it..acts on false belief ..no longer true
critq one context Psych 354 Nov,13 2013 Week 10
1) Language as a window onto development Psych 354 Nov,13 2013 Week 10
measure language as a indicator of social understanding
Mental state terms, False beliefs
2) Language as a context for development
means for developing social cog development
role in development of social understanding
Mindmindedness quality of language exposure
ex: describe mental attributes..
Those who are more advanced linguistically show greater false belief understanding.
Sentence may be true but the belief in that instance may be false
1) Augustinian View: Individualistic Separation of minds, Introspection
Mental state terms
Meaning comes from the word, what it refers to
Labels problems cannot account for context, not all words, cannot account for mental state *happy
2) Wittegentsion: Relationalmaybe not just the language, in the context of relationships ▯
shared practices/ routines develop within relationships Psych 354 Nov,13 2013 Week 10
natural reactions▯ Pain “Owww”
talking about human activity
Pointing to get something is pre linguistic proto imperitive will be replaced by linguistic based upon shared
routines… Elizabeth bates
Kids are exposed to word “happy” at the beginning so learn how to use word in proper language
Mental states have Complicated grammar – takes a long time to learn them all can use mental
states in different ways, May have a belief, or statement.. can interchange words ***** Psych 354 Week 12 Nov 20