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Lecture 3

PSYC 356 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Social Learning Theory, Classical Conditioning, Social Cognition

Course Code
PSYC 356
Martin Davidson

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Psychological Influences
o Temperament
Appears early in development
Shapes approach to and response from environment
Positive affect/approach; fearful/inhibited; negative affect/irritability
o Emotional reactivity: intensity of emotional experience
o Emotion regulation: how to manage emotions (enhance, maintain, and inhibit)
Put those feelings away Jorge
What was once adaptive becomes maladaptive
o Attachment is key here
Behavioural Influences (The B from CBT)
Standard operant/classical conditioning spiel
Better at predicting situational behaviour rather than stable traits
Emphasis on variables in the environment controlling functioning through reinforcement
and conditioning
o ABA: behaviour is the result of antecedents and consequences, not underlying,
latent issues
Based on operant conditioning
Avoidance behaviour key
o Classical conditioning
Neutral event/behaviour becomes conditioned through pairing with UCS
Explains phobias
Cognitive Influences (Give me a C)
Cognitive distortions (Beck)
o Cognitive interpretation of an event mediates emotional reaction
Thoughts/Feelings/Behaviour triangle
o Negative, distorted thoughts/interpretations a emotional distress
o Beck does not emphasize etiology so much
Focuses more on maintenance of distress
o Others hypothesize origins are in caregiving interactions
Depressive Realism
Research in late 70s examines prediction that depressed people more likely to blame
themselves when something goes wrong
2 studies
o Push a button and decide whether or not it makes green light turn on (actually
controlled by experimenter)
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o Give subjects $5 and told they lose money every time green light failed to go on
vs. those given no $ and told they get money when light comes on (button
completely irrelevant)
Depressed people superior at determining extent of their role in events
Non-depressed people engage in cognitive distortions to see self and environment in
positive way
More Cognitive Influences
Social Learning Theory
o Observational/vicarious learning
o Introduces the organism (cognition) into equation
Self-Efficacy, individual decision making re: behaviour
Includes how we think of ourselves and others (social cognition)
Cognitive deficits model
o Lacking key cognitive abilities pathology
Verbal mediation processes
Social problem-solving strategies
Social perspective-taking abilities
Wait...That’s it?
...and I even added a bunch of stuff
Does this leave you wanting? Do you feel psychobabble fulfilled?
Psychodynamic and humanistic/existential theories key too
What are those?
Who knows
Psychodynamic Influences
Let’s talk Freud first (and then Freud)
Basic idea
o Emotional disturbance is about more than just observable symptoms
o Distress is a manifestation of underlying conflicts
o Between what?
Remember the whole id, ego, superego thing? Between those
Defense Mechanisms
o Forcing unwanted feelings/impulses into unconscious
Reaction Formation
o Adopting the directly opposite form of an unwanted/threatening impulse
o Redirecting unacceptable urges onto other objects or people
o Reverting back to an earlier stage of development during times of stress/anxiety
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