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Lecture 3

HIST 2200Y Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Cholera, Trienio Liberal, Bourgeoisie


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 2200Y
Professor
Antonio Cazorla- Sánchez
Lecture
3

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HIST-2200Y October 2, 2013
Industrialization, Urbanization and Liberalism
Industrialization
Massive production of machinery to help expand markets
First happened in Great Britain, first large factories were built
Large working class in factory first appear in Britain
Spread to Belgium and Holland then to Northern France
Majority of the population live in the country to work the land, some people left
factories during harvest, came back after harvest
Higher pay in the country than in factories
Brought new hopes (better life, problems being solved), new fears (crime,
illness), new problems (poor neighbourhoods), new social movements
(government), new forms of art (photography)
The railways transformed transportation, before people had to use slow and
unreliable means (water and horses)
George Stephenson – English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built
the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use stream locomotives,
Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened in 1830, in the same year there was
the first railway causality (deaf man standing on the track and was hit)
The railway created new jobs
Created a standard time because of the railway, prevented crashes between train
National time created a feeling of closeness
Britain’s success with railways lead other nations to build there own
In 1850 there was 6,000 miles of track in Britain, 9,000 miles in America, 2,000
miles in France
Britain was always ahead of the other nations
Building railways was very expensive, needed large amount of capital
Railways were always a difficult process, difficult to build, causes huge financial
panic
Weather affected the economy greatly, prices of food went up during a bad
harvest
The steam boats completely changed the way of water travel, allowed people to
cross the Atlantic very quickly, shortening the trip from a month to a couple of
weeks
5% was working class in factories and mines in Britain and only 3% in France
The industrial revolution affected people in many ways: cheaper textiles (cotton
– easier, lighter than animal products), soap could be produced in large quantities
for the health of the public, beer was produced in larger quantities which was
healthier than water at the time
1848 the food crisis started, example Irish potato famine (political crisis)
Products that were made at home before were now many in huge factories,
destroyed the cottage industry, machine drove salaries down which created
people to boycott the factories
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