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Psychology 2110 Lecture Notes - Reading Rockets, Eurocentrism, Matthew Effect


Course Code
Psychology 2110
Fangfang Li

of 3
High literacy rates in Canada (> Grade 5)
Language and literacy are part of our life
Foundations for Early Language and Literacy Development
26 new literacy terms have come up
What is literacy?
40-50 years, absolute foundation for reading, but reading is the foundation for all things
learning in eurocentric schools
Post-secondary career projectory and the money you make
Literacy skills tied to an individual's success in society
We used to believe that literacy development belonged mostly in the school when
children learned to read and write.
Imagine not having a high literacy skill, trying to navigate twitter, facebook,
Formal teaching of reading and writing still happens at school, but literacy doesn't
begin when children learn the letter of the alphabet, write their name or go to
When we look at language and literacy, teaching the mother to be comfortable
reading their unborn child
Comfort level of trying silly voices, etc
Children who are not read to early (every day), they are going to be
behind in development
The more children talk is correlated with bigger vocabulary, bigger
range of complex phrases they know, etc
Early literacy training as part of regular pediatric care
"Reach out and Read"
30% of parents in the US read every night
Reading Rockets in PBS
Act of reading - the act of engaging the child, hearing their voice, feeling secure,
have many powerful effects for adults and children
So that they understand how to communicate, be able to carry dialogue back and
Language and literacy development
It's about helping make sense of their world, valuing lg, introducing children to the
world of lit
Positive interactions
Literacy resource rich environments
Modeling language and literacy
Early LL development is not about learning to read in a formal way
Importance of language and literacy?
Stories and songs from your own experience
Books with large clear pictures of familiar objects;
4 months: respond to people and things: respond to sounds; are curious; respond
to strong color; ready to begin looking at books; like to feel safe and secure; need
quiet time
LL Activities
Developmental activities
Guest Speaker
11:57 AM
Intro to Child Development Page 1
Books with large clear pictures of familiar objects;
Books with strong contrasts;
Books about babies;
Books/tapes of fames and rhymes to play and sing
Name things, wait for response
Conversation; teach body parts, name pictures, take them on walks
Identical to 4 months
12 months ; make up words for things; can understand seeveral words like stories
about themselves and their world; like simple books; are beginning to learn about
feelings; need to feel safe and secure
Pretty much identical
3 years: like to talk; can use describing words; combine words in short sentences;
have a sense of humor; learning the alphabet want to be independent;
responsibility; needs help to share; make believe; feel fear; show affection; likes
books and stories
Libraries, rural schools with lending libraries, borrow from other families, be
a little creative
You don't need a lot of money for all these resources
Enjoy participating in songs, stories and games
Show an interest in stories, books and literacy materials
Know many stories, nursery rhymes and songs
Develop the confidence to ask question, offer comments, join
Through stories, songs and LL activities
The skills and knowledge to understand how phonemes or speech sounds are connect to
Devode unfamiliar words
Ability to read fluently
Sufficient background information
The development of appropriate active strategies to construct meaning
Reading trajectories are established early
Readers on a low trajectory tend to stay on that trajectory
Students on a low trajectory tend to fall further and further behind
In order to build vocabulary, need exposure to language
Grade 1 teachers can predict reading level of children by grade 6
because of vocabulary levels
Less opportunity to immerse child in language in lower SE level
Child starting grade 1 with higher socioeconomic level because
resources to take kid to zoo, talk to kid a lot more
The rich get richer, and the poor get poorer
Matthew Effect
The later children are identified as needing support, the more difficult it is to
catch up
Implement early LL: emergent literacy strategies from birth onward
Focus on extensive lg activies
Identify students early if at risk and include more LL strategies - daily
Engage the child, don't ask them comprehension questions
Shared language, not the adult being direct to the child
We can change these trajectories
What do we know about early LL?
The development and maintenance of a motivation to read
Emergent literacy
Intro to Child Development Page 2
Not all of them are needed
Skills that let children communicate, understand, obtain and express.
Phonological processing, print knowledge,
Teaching one area will not necessarily promote development in
Oral language
3 skills
Is it really necessary for them to print perfectly in grade 1, grade
For many kids in school when they are being taught to read, drill and
kill, how to do phonics, how to print a particular alphabet
Learn to read early and well, more exposure to print, which solidifies reading
and writing skill
Accurate and fluent idenfticiaiton
Less exposure
Miss opportunities
Difficult for reading level
Negative attitudes
Less likely to graduate
Children who lag behind:
Decode what you cannot comprehend, but cannot comprehend
what you cannot decode
Good language comprehension skills
2 components
Reading is key
Emergent literacy as a foundation for reading
Read out loud
Talk with children everyday and often
Big picture what is the most important?
Intro to Child Development Page 3