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John Usher (30)

Functions of Sleep.docx

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PSYC 3325
John Usher

Functions of Sleep ● sleep is univeral behaviour  Indus dolphins live in mud and have become blind because vision is not useful – very dangerous for it to sleep and does not stop swimming but sleeps at 4-60 second intervals = sleep must serve some important purspose or would have been eliminated as well ● simplest explanation for sleep is that it serves to repair wear and taer on bodies caused by moving and exercising ● sleep deprivation studies has not provided evidence that sleep is necessary for body to function normally ● Horne – reviewed more than 50 experiments in which humans had been deprived of sleep and reported thta most of them found sleep deprivation did not interfere with people's ability to perform physical exercise; also found no physiological stress response to sleep deprivation ● studies suggest that sleep-deprived people are able to perform normally on most intellectual tasks, as long as tasks are short – perform more poorly on tasks tha require high level of cortical functioning after two days of sleep deprivation, especially on tasks that require them to be watchful, alert, and vigilant ● during stage 4 metabolic activity of brain decreases to about 75% of waking level – stage gives brain a chance to rest  people are unreactive to all but intense stimuli during slow-wave sleep and if awakened act groggy and confused – as if cerebral cortex has been shut down and hasn't yet resumed its functioning  suggest brain is indeed resting ● studies on sleep deprivation in human suggest that brain needs slow-wave sleep in order to recover from day's activities but rest of body doesn't ● another way to determine whether sleep is needed for restoration of physiological functioning is to look at effects of daytime activity on nighttime sleep ● Ryback and Lewis – found no changes in slow-wave or REM sleep on healthy participants who spent 6 weeks resting in bed – should expect them to sleep less ● Adey, Bors, and Porter – studied sleep of completely immobile quadrpilegics and paraplegics and found only small decrease in slow-wave sleep as compared to others ● bodily exercise has little effect on sleep but mental exercise seems to increase demand for slow-wave sleep ● Horne and Minard – found way to increase mental acitbity without affecting physical activity and without causing stress  told volunteers to show up for experiment to take some tests to assess reading skills but when people showed up they were told plans have changed and they were invited for a day out at expense of researchers  spent day visiting art exhibition, zoo, shopping centre, museum, amusement park and watched movie – driven from place to place and didn't become overheated by exercise  when they slept in labratory their slow-wave sleep – particularly stage 4 – was increased Dreaming Stages of Consciousness During Sleep: ● person awakened during REM sleep will report dream ● typical REM sleep dream resembles play or movie – has narrative form ● reports of narrative, story-like dreams are rare among people awakened from slow-wave sleep – mental activity during slow-wave sleep is more static; involves situations rather than stories and is generally unpleasant ● unless slee
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