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Psychology 3325 Lecture Notes - Frontal Lobe, Paul Broca, Prefrontal Cortex

Course Code
Psychology 3325
John Usher

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Planning and Moving: Frontal Lobe
principle function is movement but also related to planning, changing strategies, being aware
of oneself, evaluating emotionally related stimuli, and performing variety of spontaneous
behaviours, and contains region involved in control of speech
damage to primary motor cortex produces paralysis of opposite side of body
damage to prefrontal cortex produces complex behavioural defecits:
slowing of thought and behaviour and loss of spontaneity
person will react to events in environment but will show defecits in initiating
behaviour cannot write as many words as possible, only a few, even though has no
problem understanding words or identifying objects by name
damage to frontal lobes causes difficulty changing strategies fail to abandon
strategy when solving task, even if that one isnt working
loss of self-awareness and changes in emotional reactions
bland personality seem indifferent to events that would normally be expected to
affect them emotionally; little insight into their problems and are uncritical of their
performance on various tasks; not bothered by pain althoguh can feel it
deficiencies in foresight and planning
may perform well on test of intelligence but unable to keep job
planning is related to motor functions of frontal lobes cannot imagine something
they might do so do or say things with unfavourable consequences because they have
lost ability to plan actions
Paul Broca found that damage to region in left frontal lobe disrupts speech; region lies just
in front of “face” region of primary motor cortex
Broca's - controls muscles used for talking
circuits of neurons in that area contain memories of sequences of muscle movements that
are needed to pronounce words
anatomically, cerebral cortex is divided into 4 lobes:
frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal
functionally, cerebral cortex is organized into 5 regions:
3 regions of primary sensory cortex: visual, auditory, and somatosensory
primary motor cortex planning and action
association cortex perceiving and learning
left hemisphere analyzing information (extraction of information about details of
right hemisphere synthesis (putting together perception of general form and shape of
things from smaller elements that are present at same time)
communicate with each other through corpus callosu (large bundle of axons)
frontal lobes concerned with motor functions, including planning of strategies for action
Broca's area region of left frontal cortex specialized for control of speech
parietal lobe (somatosensory), occipital lobe (visual), and temporal lobe (auditory in
upper and visual in lower) located behind central fissure
generally concerned with perceiving, learning, and remembering somatosensory
Control of Internal Functions and Automatic Behaviour
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