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art history pre history

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University of Alberta
Art History
ART H101

September 24/2013 Prehistory:  Time before written records Paleolithic times:  Sculpture of Venus unclothed showed sexual characteristics of women Neolithic:  First time with religion  Control food supply/crops/maintain herds  First permanent settlements  Ceremonial architecture Mesolithic:  Middle stone age  Transitional stone age *bigger # with BC, older the time is, bigger # on AD, closer to our time. If no AD or BC=AD*  #1-5 use animals for food and survival (raw material for shelter and clothes) -hunter gathers -in Ukraine -best preserved site -utilize whatever at hand Not designed to be permanent 16-1800 BC  #1-3 2 groups utilitarian objects and symbolic  burial sites-ornamental objects with purpose  first works of arts are jewelry to put on our bodies because portable , earliest =40000BC  objects of esthetic  tattoos  Austria 20 years ago ice man, hunter, Neolithic foul play, fall in glacier  burial sites symbolic mindset of people  burry dead with fancy objects  dispose of human remains in a special way in hope of something  ochre-iron oxide-crush to powder-many colors for symbols  sea shells are oldest jewelry 40-42000BC  Russia 25000BC SUNGIR -burial with beading decorations-Neolithic -always burry towards east, systematic  decorate weapons  carve animal figures as handle of weapon  improve accuracy of travel of weapon  #1-6new things in symbolic features -hybrid -mix animals with humans -animal motifs-show importance of animals in survival/imagination  Fluidity(intaxoninomical ranking) categories where things belong-possibility of transformation  permeability- between physical and imaginary worlds  most are figures of female body  no sense of individualism(all look same)  no one in particular-impersonal  male figures found in Czech republic  no exaggerated figures for men 1. sculpture in round-3D sculpture, detail all around 2. relief sculpture-image projected out of support backing 3. additive sculpture-with clay  #1-8 additive-fired clay, ceramic production don’t appear till neo  #1-7, 1-9- as detailed as faces get, capture essence of an idea not a person Theories of figures:  Functionality-appearance-interpretation 1. Society where woman had main role matrochy- matriotical -physical charisma -most surviving are women -it signifies that everyone has the same beliefs 2. Religious functions-fertility symbol -speculates religious beliefs -religious makeup=fertility cult -not about pregnant woman, rather fertility of animals and crops 3. Scale-small-portable-serve as charm or ambulate, travel from one group to another, social bonding 4. Oldest, most problematic-represent Paleolithic idea of beauty –flawed -bias -injecting idea of our own society by implying “venus” -venus with white skin with blonde –most women have olive skin and dark hair * hardest to attain becomes the standard, object to be visually devoured* Neolithic Architecture:  Mesolithic 10-8000BC: -better control over food supply -Catal Huyuk -19 century, real excavations begin 1960s -large settlements starting 8000-7500BC until 5700BC -5-8 thousand people –a lot for them -near volcano -rich deposit of glass (volcanic) called obsidian, make tools -make instruments and blades -Now had specializations-traded -First trade economy -specialize in cattle herding/farming -the way that the building was laid out was for safety DEFENSIVE STRATEGY -to access the doors, had to go through ladders -timber building material stone, mud brick -people in town buried within village (in the ground) -separate head from body, preserve, kind of ritual -graves, murals, figurines -people had rich religious life -ritual roomswalls filled with cattle things -auroch-animal/cattle painting everywhere  #1-17 -Hieratic scale-hierarchy of conception -Size differences-show importance between objects -Humans are always smaller than animals  Mimesis-mimatic-immitating  Catal Huyuk painting: -earliest dated examples at attempt at history making -what is painted on the walls-events that have happened  Woman figurines still worshipped-no gender division Stone henges: 1. Menhr-alone single stone vertical position 2. Dolmen-ritual architecture; stone covering circualr stones;pre historic tomb 3. Cromlech-circular arrangment of megalithic stone * *Megalithic-architecture made of large stones* * Alignment-13 parallel rows -roman army turned to stone * POST AND LINTEL SYSTEM-vertical elements (at least 2) and a horizontal one on top * CORBELING-look up directly to the ceiling in a building * 4 major developments * starting3200 BC * size shows something about society * have a socializing function, tie people together * work towards common goal * theory: movement of the moon, planet associated with funeral rituals * spread out large ritual sites included Neolithic tombs * stone henge 2: additional monuments added * semi-circle, 2200bc * made of blue stone (dolorite) replace wooden posts * is when they align certain points in the calendar monument * acknowledgement of what is going on in the sky, get an understading of what is going on below * belief that what we build down below affects what is above us * phase 4 1500bc, not rearranged components, added alter stone * large stone blocks, cement, original components of 2, date to 2600 replaced with larger stone blocks * 3rs: put the blue stones back , create interior circle * in center added horseshoe shaped configuration of 5 sets of 3 stones, called tri lithon arranged in horseshoe * last thing 1500bc tip of horseshoe add alter stone * 1000 BC, circle had been abandoned * systematic building of stone henging tech dates back to 18th cent * linthel stones have indentations -
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