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ART H101 Lecture Notes - Stonehenge, Neolithic Architecture, Stone Age


Art History
Course Code
ART H101

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September 24/2013
Time before written records
Paleolithic times:
Sculpture of Venus unclothed showed sexual characteristics of women
First time with religion
Control food supply/crops/maintain herds
First permanent settlements
Ceremonial architecture
Middle stone age
Transitional stone age
*bigger # with BC, older the time is, bigger # on AD, closer to our time. If no
AD or BC=AD*
#1-5 use animals for food and survival (raw material for shelter and clothes)
-hunter gathers
-in Ukraine
-best preserved site
-utilize whatever at hand
Not designed to be permanent
16-1800 BC
#1-3 2 groups utilitarian objects and symbolic
burial sites-ornamental objects with purpose
first works of arts are jewelry to put on our bodies because portable , earliest
objects of esthetic

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Austria 20 years ago ice man, hunter, Neolithic foul play, fall in glacier
burial sites symbolic mindset of people
burry dead with fancy objects
dispose of human remains in a special way in hope of something
ochre-iron oxide-crush to powder-many colors for symbols
sea shells are oldest jewelry 40-42000BC
Russia 25000BC SUNGIR
-burial with beading decorations-Neolithic
-always burry towards east, systematic
decorate weapons
carve animal figures as handle of weapon
improve accuracy of travel of weapon
#1-6new things in symbolic features
-mix animals with humans
-animal motifs-show importance of animals in survival/imagination
Fluidity(intaxoninomical ranking) categories where things belong-possibility of
permeability- between physical and imaginary worlds
most are figures of female body
no sense of individualism(all look same)
no one in particular-impersonal
male figures found in Czech republic
no exaggerated figures for men

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1. sculpture in round-3D sculpture, detail all around
2. relief sculpture-image projected out of support backing
3. additive sculpture-with clay
#1-8 additive-fired clay, ceramic production don’t appear till neo
#1-7, 1-9- as detailed as faces get, capture essence of an idea not a person
Theories of figures:
1. Society where woman had main role matrochy- matriotical
-physical charisma
-most surviving are women
-it signifies that everyone has the same beliefs
2. Religious functions-fertility symbol
-speculates religious beliefs
-religious makeup=fertility cult
-not about pregnant woman, rather fertility of animals and crops
3. Scale-small-portable-serve as charm or ambulate, travel from one group to
another, social bonding
4. Oldest, most problematic-represent Paleolithic idea of beauty –flawed
-injecting idea of our own society by implying “venus”
-venus with white skin with blonde –most women have olive skin and dark
* hardest to attain becomes the standard, object to be visually devoured*
Neolithic Architecture:
Mesolithic 10-8000BC:
-better control over food supply
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