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BIOCH 200 (March 7, 2014) - Enzymes

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University of Alberta
Walter Dixon

BIOCH 200 Enzymes (con’t) (March 7, 2014)  some overlap • *Chemical reactions only occur if the reactants are in the right orientation in regards to each other • Proximity and orientation effects of catalysis o Substrate binding to enzyme is in a certain orientation  Bringing together substrates in this way greatly increases the rate of reaction o *When enzymes catalyze reactions, they may donate/accept protons but this is temporary… the enzyme will always return back to its original state. • *Amino acids that take part in acid-base catalysis. Act as an acid or a base depending on their state of protonation. o Aspartate (or aspartic acid) o Glutamate (or glutamic acid) o Histidine o Lysine o Cysteine o Tyrosine • *Amino acids that take part in nucleophillic catalysis (aka covalent catalysis). These amino acids can act as nucleophiles when they get deprotonated because they then have a lone pair of electrons, something that is needed for nucleophillic attack. o Serine/Tyrosine o Cysteine o Lysine o Histidine • Schiff base = “imine” • *Cofactors are divided into 2 groups o Coenzymes  Divided into two more groups: • Cosubstrates (ex. NAD+) o *Participate in the reaction within the active site and then leave when it is over.
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