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Lecture 8

BIOL107 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Cell Membrane, Nuclear Membrane, Lysosome

Biology (Biological Sciences)
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Biol107-Lecture 8: Eukaryotic Interiors Part 2
Eukaryotic Interiors Part 2
Endomembrane System
It is the continuous flow of membrane from the nucleus to the plasma membrane
Consists of nuclear envelope, Rough and Smooth ER, vesicles and vacuoles,
Golgi apparatus (cisternae), lysosomes, peroxisomes, and plasma membrane.
Functiontransport vesicle bud from source compartments and carry some of
the contents to a target compartment.
The luminal contents form a budding vesicle that becomes a transport vesicle
carrying the luminal contents and then the vesicle fuses with the target
compartment and the luminal contents go into the targeted compartment.
Golgi Apparatus
Stacks of flattened vacuoles: they’re hollow and have 2 membranes
The have a cis face (receiving side) and a trans face (shipping side) with the
trans face concaving towards the plasma membrane. The cis face receives the
vesicle bud from the rough ER and trans face send it off
Animals tend to have one large stack while plants tend to have many little ones.
Cisternae give rise to vesicles with the cisternae budding off into the vesicle
Function: modify and distribute proteins made by the ER
Proteins form the ER fuses with the Golgi apparatus on one side, the GA
modifies them, and ships them to the plasma membrane and lysosome through
the other side
Example: Proinsulin (a polypeptide) is made in the ER of pancreatic cells, then
transported to the GA, then modified into insulin, then packaged in vesicles for
export through exocytosis.
Vesicle sized organelles and they contain about 40 different hydrolyzing
They digest macromolecules using the enzymes to hydrolyze them (break them
Typically considered as an animal-only organelle
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