BIOL107 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Cell Membrane, Nuclear Membrane, Lysosome
SchoolUniversity of Alberta
DepartmentBiology (Biological Sciences)
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Biol107-Lecture 8: Eukaryotic Interiors Part 2
Eukaryotic Interiors Part 2
• It is the continuous flow of membrane from the nucleus to the plasma membrane
• Consists of nuclear envelope, Rough and Smooth ER, vesicles and vacuoles,
Golgi apparatus (cisternae), lysosomes, peroxisomes, and plasma membrane.
• Function—transport vesicle bud from source compartments and carry some of
the contents to a target compartment.
• The luminal contents form a budding vesicle that becomes a transport vesicle
carrying the luminal contents and then the vesicle fuses with the target
compartment and the luminal contents go into the targeted compartment.
• Stacks of flattened vacuoles: they’re hollow and have 2 membranes
• The have a cis face (receiving side) and a trans face (shipping side) with the
trans face concaving towards the plasma membrane. The cis face receives the
vesicle bud from the rough ER and trans face send it off
• Animals tend to have one large stack while plants tend to have many little ones.
• Cisternae give rise to vesicles with the cisternae budding off into the vesicle
• Function: modify and distribute proteins made by the ER
• Proteins form the ER fuses with the Golgi apparatus on one side, the GA
modifies them, and ships them to the plasma membrane and lysosome through
the other side
• Example: Proinsulin (a polypeptide) is made in the ER of pancreatic cells, then
transported to the GA, then modified into insulin, then packaged in vesicles for
export through exocytosis.
• Vesicle sized organelles and they contain about 40 different hydrolyzing
• They digest macromolecules using the enzymes to hydrolyze them (break them
• Typically considered as an animal-only organelle
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