The continued provision of a healthy, qualified labour force. From 19th century: supported by water treatment, sewer systems, improved housing conditions. Today: facilitated by access to health care, education, social services, community, etc. Investment of resources in the build form of the city. Inherently collective endeavours require control and cooperation -- e. g. for shared infrastructure (water), services (fire: public sector primarily responsible for maintaining orderly , coordinated city, policies to ensure delivery of services, protect public health & safety, respond to challenges. 1. 1: small, very compact cities (walking as dominant travel mode, established o facilitate export of raw materials to european markets. Settlement concentrated on st lawrence river & north shore of lakes ontario & erie; Eastern seaboard: largest cities in 1800: quebec city (8000); montreal (6000, pedestrian-oriented, gridiron street pattern where possible. Clearing of forests for lumber increased land available for agriculture: rapid population growth due to natural increase, mass immigration.