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Lecture

HIST111 Lecture Notes - Pope Paul V, Pope Urban Viii, Moctezuma I

by OneClass243245 , Fall 2013
42 Pages
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Fall 2013

Department
History
Course Code
HIST111
Professor
Indre Cuplinskas

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History 111
September 10th, 2013:
Habsburgs:
Define Empire:
- Common political influence
- Disparate sovereign states
- "Rule by a particular group in a political centre over
a diverse and different set of other, often distant,
countries and peoples, generally as a result of military
conquest".
Rise of the Spanish Empire
1. The Growth of the Spanish Empire
- Ferdinand and Isabella
- Ferdinand, King of Castile (1479-
1516) - Isabella, Queen of Aragon (1474-
1504) -marriage in 1469 establishes the
Kingdom of Spain
- Uniting Spain
- personal union between Aragon and
Castile, 1469 due to the marriage of Ferdinand and
Isabella - Together Isabella and Aragon
conquers Granada in 1492
- The effort of uniting Spain was started
as a movement in the 1100's known as Reconquista,
where Christians in Iberia leads the effort to
reconquer the land taken away by the muslims. By
doing so, Spain was split into different principalities.
- Exploring the Atlantic
- Christopher Columbus was sent to
find the Atlantic, thereby giving Spain more territory,
SOUTH AMERICA:)
- Charles V (1516-1556
-grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand
- Through his ancestors, Charles V
rules all of Spain and all its empires.
- Charles V was also elected as the
Holy Roman Emperor
- Holy Roman Emperor
- (By 16th century, encompasses most
of Central Europe, with the centre in German
speaking principalities
- Considered the most prestigious
crown in Europe
- Elected by the 7 princes of the
different principalities in the Holy ROman Empire.
- Hundreds of Principalities, ruled by
different Princes
- Philipp II
- Son of Charles V
- Inherits the Western territories of his
father's empire: Spain, Netherlands, Americas
- Married: Queen Mary of England,
which alienated him with England, which later was
broken after Elizabeth II rises to the throne.
2. Ruling the Empire
- A fiscal-military state
-The military revolution
- Increasing use of gunpowder,
firearms, cannons
- Larger and more expensive militaries
- Money and Taxation
- Money economy
- Raises taxes in order to wage wars
and built up large militaries
- Successful empires needs to tax
wealth form oversea empires
- Development of bureaucracies
3. Religion of the Spanish Empire
- Catholic Hierarchy
1. Pope
2. Bishops (head of the Catholic church
in different states)
3. Priests (runs the local church)
4. Nuns and Monks (works under the
priest and help him run the local church)
- The Spanish Inquisition
- Established in Spain in 1478
- Religious-secular institution
- Goal is to root out heretics (those who
do not conform to Catholic orthodoxy)
- 30,000 arrested and 2000 were
executed, with all of those arrested tortured
- Protestants, muslims, and regular
Spanish subjects who were homosexuals or
committed adultery were the targets
September 12th, 2013:
Ottoman Empire:
- One of the largest empires during the modern
world and one of the longest continuing empires in the

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Description
History 111 September 10th, 2013: Habsburgs: Define Empire: - Common political influence - Disparate sovereign states - "Rule by a particular group in a political centre over a diverse and different set of other, often distant, countries and peoples, generally as a result of military conquest". Rise of the Spanish Empire 1. The Growth of the Spanish Empire - Ferdinand and Isabella - Ferdinand, King of Castile (1479- 1516) - Isabella, Queen of Aragon (1474- 1504) -marriage in 1469 establishes the Kingdom of Spain - Uniting Spain - personal union between Aragon and Castile, 1469 due to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella - Together Isabella and Aragon conquers Granada in 1492 - The effort of uniting Spain was started as a movement in the 1100's known as Reconquista, where Christians in Iberia leads the effort to reconquer the land taken away by the muslims. By doing so, Spain was split into different principalities. - Exploring the Atlantic - Christopher Columbus was sent to find the Atlantic, thereby giving Spain more territory, SOUTH AMERICA:) - Charles V (1516-1556 -grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand - Through his ancestors, Charles V rules all of Spain and all its empires. - Charles V was also elected as the Holy Roman Emperor - Holy Roman Emperor - (By 16th century, encompasses most of Central Europe, with the centre in German speaking principalities - Considered the most prestigious crown in Europe - Elected by the 7 princes of the different principalities in the Holy ROman Empire. - Hundreds of Principalities, ruled by different Princes - Philipp II - Son of Charles V - Inherits the Western territories of his father's empire: Spain, Netherlands, Americas - Married: Queen Mary of England, which alienated him with England, which later was broken after Elizabeth II rises to the throne. 2. Ruling the Empire - A fiscal-military state -The military revolution - Increasing use of gunpowder, firearms, cannons - Larger and more expensive militaries - Money and Taxation - Money economy - Raises taxes in order to wage wars and built up large militaries - Successful empires needs to tax wealth form oversea empires - Development of bureaucracies 3. Religion of the Spanish Empire - Catholic Hierarchy 1. Pope 2. Bishops (head of the Catholic church in different states) 3. Priests (runs the local church) 4. Nuns and Monks (works under the priest and help him run the local church) - The Spanish Inquisition - Established in Spain in 1478 - Religious-secular institution - Goal is to root out heretics (those who do not conform to Catholic orthodoxy) - 30,000 arrested and 2000 were executed, with all of those arrested tortured - Protestants, muslims, and regular Spanish subjects who were homosexuals or committed adultery were the targets September 12th, 2013: Ottoman Empire: - One of the largest empires during the modern world and one of the longest continuing empires in the world. - Muslim empire - Even though the empire is ruled and dominated by the muslims, several other ethnic and religious groups reside within the empire. 1. Rise of the Ottomans - founded in1300 and dissolved in 1922 - founded by Ottoman turks, pastoral nomads from central Asia - founder: Osman (1300-1324) - Mehmet conquers Constinsnople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, which expands the Ottomans territory. - Some Christian principalities ally themselves with the Ottoman Empire to gain protection. - The Ottoman EMpire benefited from the weakness of their surrounding empires, by taking over and conquering their surrounding empires. 2. Ruling the Ottoman Empire 1. The Sultan - Mehmet II transforms the role of the Sultan into the source of authority and the legitimation of the state. - no hereditary aristocratic class to challenge his authority, different from European Monarchs because the European Monarchs had aristocrats who controls their power - Instead of having aristocrats, the Sultan employs slaves who enjoy freedom, but his life is under the control of the Sultan. The slaves work under the Sultan as ministers, who give advice to the Sultan. - The Sultan also chooses his heir and the others sons who weren't chosen were either executed or locked away. 2. Suleiman the Magnificent (1529 - 1566) - Expanded the territory of the Ottoman Empire into Europe and was deemed to be the most capable Sultan of the Ottoman Empire - trainer literally and militarily 3. The Harem - a sacred part of the Sultan's palace, where it housed women - the women were either chosen as a concubine for the Sultan or married off to another member of the Royal Family - the concubines can only bore the Sultan with only one child, in order to have no influence regarding the State affairs of the Ottoman Empire - the concubines can not marry the Sultan, but can only bear the Sultan kids - Suleiman changes the culture of the Harem because he fell in love with a women named Hurrem-Roxelena, who bore him four children and was a concubine. He ends marrying Roxelena, who became the first concubine to become the wife of an Sultan. 4. Bureaucracy - The four Pillars of the Grand Empire 1. The Grand Vizier (Prime Minister) 2. Judiciary 3. Treasury 4. Administrators PRIMARY SOURCE READINGS "The Tribute of Children" 5. Religion of the Ottoman Empire - Islam is the religion of the Ottoman Empire - Two branches of Islam: Sunnis and - Dhimmis: subjects of the Ottoman EMpire who were not muslim. They had to pay an additional head tax. They are mostly made up of Jews and Christians. Unlike the Habsburg's, the Ottoman Empire welcomed other religions. September 17th, 2013: Protestant Reformation: 1. Factors Leading to the Reformation 1. Christendom: - Fusion of Christianity and society that shaped Western Europe from about 1000 to the Reformation - No Separation of church and state - Pope is also a political leader as he is the ruler of the Papal States 2. Deciders Erasmus (1467 - 1536) - A Christian humanist (a educational and cultural movement, who wanted to implement a new education system in Italy) - Christian humanists also calls for a closer study of the bible and for reforms in the Catholic Church - Even though he is critic of Catholiscm, Erasmus remains a loyal servant to the Catholic church 2. Martin Luther (1483 - 1546) - A german, who became a Augustinian monk - earns a doctorate at the University of Wittenberg and teaches there as a Bible teacher - publishes 95 Theses criticizing practices of the Catholic Church, 1517 1. Indulgences - Indulgences: Remission, after death, of all or part of the punishment in the purgatory (place where souls are purified before going to heaven) due to sin - Albert of Brandenburg (1490 - 1545) - Bishop of Mainz - experiences financial difficulties: Owes money to the Bank of Fugger - hires John Tetzel, a Dominican friar, to sell indulgences - Luther becomes very angry with the actions of selling indulgences and writes about them in order to criticize, which angers the Pope 2. Luther's Theological Tenets: - Sola Fide (Faith Alone) - Luther's personal spiritual experience makes him doubt the possibility of saving oneself through works - Faith alone also challenges the truth that can be attained through reason and philosophical thought - Sola Scripture (Scripture Alone) - argues that Christian truth can be understood simply by reading the bible - calls for translation of the Bible into the vernacular (local spoken language) - challenges the Catholic practice of the role of the priests, bishops, and popes in the comprehension of Christian truths - challenges the Catholic practice of philosophy in the elaboration of Christian beliefs 3. The Printing Press - invented by Johannes Gutenberg ca 1440 - easy to mass produce pamphlets, print Bibles and so disseminate the ideas of Reformers and others 4. Political Situation - Luther begins his public career in a divided Holy ROman Empire in which there are different ideas amongst its peoples - Charles I of Spain gets elected to become the Holy Roman Emperor and becomes Charles V 5. Elector Frederick of Saxony - Prince of the city-state that Luther lives - "kidnaps" Luther, in order to save him from the Pope in Rome after he releases the Diet of Worms 6. Peasant's Rebellion (1524 - 1525) - peasants revolts across Germany - Peasants with Memmingen Articles to Luther with their demands, such as free access to firewood, an election to determine the priest of their church. - However, Luther sides with the Princes of the German States, where he publishes the "Against the Thieving and Murdering Bands of Peasants' 3. John Calvin - leader of the 2nd generation of the reformation - born in France, but flees to Geneva, Switzerland after his conversion to Protestantism 1. Calvinism - similar to Lutheranism - becomes an international movement as it spreads to Scotland, England, France, and Central and Eastern Europe 4. Henry VIII, King of England (1491 - 1547) - severs ties with the Pope in ROme in order to divorce his first wife, Catharine of Aragon, and marry Anne Boleyn - Act of Supremacy, November 1534: clergy submit to the authority of the monarch (King Henry VIII) - CHurch of England finds a balance between Catholicism and Calvinism 5. Radical Reformation - Anabaptists ( people who believe that adults can choose to be baptized or not) September 19th, 2013: Witch-hunt: - begins in the late 15th century - continues for 200 years in Europe - intensity varies from place to place, time to time - accused are 80% women and 20% men - approximately 50,000 to 100,000 thousand people executed 1. What were Witches Accused of Doing? - gave herself to devil - renounced God - renounced Lent - casted a spell causing the death of a person or animal - SUMMARY: 1. Relationship with the Devil 2. Heresy: Renouncing central aspects of Christian religion 3. Casting Spells 2. Witches Sabbath - Witches were accused of meeting together in the woods and meeting the devil and were accused of kissing his ass. 3. Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of the Witches) - published in Strasberg in1486 - 1487\ - first comprehensive guide to how to hunt for witches - describes the witches' crimes in detail - provides detailed instructions on how to judge and punish witches accused of practicing witchcraft 4. Who was a Witch? 1. "at risk population" - healers - "cunning folks" - widows who were deemed to be strange 5. Witch Trials 1. Accusations: accusatorial and inquisitorial - accusatorial: getting people to accuse others of being a witch - inquisitorial: have a "detective" to find the witches 2. Proving Witches - Trial by Ordeal: getting different unrational methods of determine the guilt of a witch - Torture: force the accused of a confession by torturing them 6. Sentencing Witches - Many were executed, some were sent to prison, others were sent to be tortured or embarrassed in front of people - Execution methods includes: Burning Alive and Hanging September 24th, 2013 Primary Source: The source that was written during the time of the period that the source is addressing Secondary Source: An analysis of an event that had already happened, usually based on the Primary source Wars of Religion: 1. Peace of Augsburg - an agreement signed in the city f Augsburg by the estates if the Holy Roman Empire - legalizes the existence of both Catholics and Lutheran (Protestant) - formally introduces the legislature of "Whose ever rule, that person's religion", which makes the elected ruler of the Princes of the different principalities the decider between Lutheran and Catholic - the treaty was seen as a interim sign of peace between Catholics and Lutherans (Protestants), which is unfeasible and still is 2. Wars on Religion 1. French Wars on Religion (1562-1598) - Conflicts arise between the Huguenots and Catholics - Huguenots, who are Calvinists, make up 7-15% of the French population, but makes up 40- 50% of the France nobility - Peace results when Charles IV rises to the French throne - Charles IV is an Huguenot, who had to convert to Catholic, in order to assume the French throne. - Afterwards, Charles IV passes the Edict of Naningburgh, which named Catholicism the official religion of the French, however Calvinism can be practiced freely and Huguenots are free to hold political and public office 2. The Dutch Revolt (1566-1609) 3. Thirty Years of War (1618-1648) 4. The Civil War in England (1642 - 1648) - Charles I (1625-1649) - In terms of religion, has Catholic tendencies, as he brings lots Catholic traditions back - Rules England as a dictator or absolute monarchy, because of it parliament gets dissolved - Faces an crisis in his native Scotland, in order to have funding to battle against the Scots, King Charles I summons the parliament to raise taxes - The parliament makes demand for the King to share power, however Charles refuses and he gets deposed in an civil war and executed. 3. Military Weapons 1. Musketeer (an old fashioned gun) - The musketeer leads to caracole, where a line of men using a musketeer line up to fire the gun one after another - The bayonet is put in the end of the musket September 27th, 2013 Absolute Monarchs and Constitutions in the 17th and 18th Century 1. Hierarchy - based on Aristotle and Ptolemy's philosophy and science works - family and governmental hierarchy - man controls the family and King controls the country 2. Louis XIV - longest reigning monarch of France, rues personally for 54 years - considered to be the most absolute monarch in Europe 1. Mercantilism 1.Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) - French statesman - Controller General of Finance for King Louis XIV of France - Commander of the French Navy - Big proponent of mercantilism 2. What is mercantilism? - economic theory dominant in Europe around the 1600's - mercantilism aims to benefit the state - gives great amount of importance and opportunity for foreign trade - assumes that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world - focus on developing manufacturing goods in order to increase export earnings. The focus shifted from raw materials to manufactured goods. - government intervention is necessary in economic life 2. Power as Pageant 3. Citing Sources 1. When? - Direct quotation - Paraphrasing - Ideas 2. How to Cite? - For this class it is required to use the Chicago Citation Styles. The Chicago Manual of Styles can be found in most library and as well as the UA library. - Citing should be made in footnotes at the bottom of the page using 10 point font, and all of the sources I use will appear at the end of the page in bibliographic form. October 1st, 2013 Development of Science 1. Aristotle: - earth is composed of 4 elements: 1. Water 2. Fire 3. Earth 4. Air - Believed that there was an world in the air (God) and on land - all of nature is described according to its qualities - motion occurs because of an object's inherent qualities or because it is pushed or pulled - Aristotle's philosophy provides the main philosophy for all medieval thinkers 2. Plotlemy - developed mathematical theories that helps medieval scientists calculate distance and others etc…….. 3. Nicolai Copernicus - Polish Catholic clergyman, mathematician, astronomer - writes about the heliocentric universe in his Commentariolus 1514 - after years of observations, Copernicus completes De Revolutionizes - Copernicus' works were banned by the Catholic Church in 1616 4. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) - Italian astronomer and physicist - 1610, Galileo constructs refracting telescope, which he uses to observe astronomical phenomena 1. Galileo's trial Key Players: Roberto Bellarmine (A Jesuit, Catholic Church's main respondent to challenge raised by Galileo) Pope Paul V (1605-1621) (Suspicious of intellectuals) Pope Urban VIII (A friend of Galileo, who succeeds Pope Paul V) Events: 1. Galileo was summoned to ROme by Pope Paul V in 1616 2. Catholic CHurch condemns Copernicanism 3. Galileo was told not to defend, teach, or write about Copernicus 4. Galileo's friend becomes the new Pope, Pope Urban VIII 5. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) - natural philosopher, biblical scholar and civil servant - works on optics, mathematics, laws of gravity 6. Enlightenment - Term coined by Emmanuel Kant, 1793- an age when people began to think on their own - Emergence of a scientific way of thinking 7. Natural Right - Essential to Enlightenment political thought - RIghts which a person possesses by nature, as opposed to rights con erred by a legal institution 8. Social Contract Theory - political theory concerned with the relationships between individuals and state - explores questions: what constitutes the legitimate foundation of a state? October 3rd, 2013 The Age of Exploration and Tavel 1. Exploration and Travel 1. Vasco Da Gama (1469 - 1524) - A Portuguese explorer, sent by the King of Portugal - First person to round the Horn of Africa from Europe - Vasco Da Gama takes 2 interpreters who speaks arabic and African tribe languages, a priest, and a bunch of convicts to help with labor. Takes a total of 170 men on his 4 ships. - The trip takes place from July 1497 to September 1499 2. Zheng He - Chinese explorer and mariner - leads 7 expeditions in the Indian Ocean and beyond taking place from 1405 - 1433 - Each expedition had more than 300 ships and over 27 0000 men - Served under Emperor Zhu Di 1. Reasons for Zheng He's Voyages: - Display cultural and technological superiority of Chinese civilization - Help build system of tributary states linked to China 3. Christopher Columbus (1451 - 1506) - Italian born explorer that was rejected by the Portugal Crown to explore a different route than Vasco Da Gama - Convinced Ferdinand and Isabella (Crown of Castille and Aragon) to finance his voyage - 1492 - Christopher Columbus starts his voyage 2. Technological Advances 1. Maps - Needs to adapt to wind - Looks at stars to fns direction 2. Boats - Portuguese Caraval: a fishing boat that carries smaller amount of men and it depends on sails, which makes them easier to manoeuvre 3. Impetus for Exploration and Expansion 1. Economic - the Portuguese and Europeans wanted spices from the Indians. Ex: - pepper (primarily grown in Southern India) - cloves (Native to only a few islands in Indonesia) - cinnamon (native to Southeast Asia), used to flavour wine 2. Geo- Political Reasons for Exploration - Overseas territory and wealth - THrough exploration, Absolute Monarchs can send other powerful members who are deemed to be a threat to his rule to other parts of his empire so they are no longer a threat 3. Religious - Continuation of an Christian Muslim struggle, to get non-religious people to believe in Christianity - Hope of finding other or new CHristians: - The Myth of Prester John - a myth that says a Christian King named John ruled a nation in the east October 8th, 2013 Spanish Conquest of Aztecs 1. The Portuguese: Estado da India 1. Missions Pedro Alveres Cabral - Portuguese explorer who wanted to land in India and instead lands in Brazil. 2. Routes - The Portuguese controlled all routes, every other boat had to buy a pass in order to travel 2. Aztecs 1. Tenochititlan - Centre of Aztec power in the Valley of Mexico. Capital of the Aztec Empire - Built on an island in the Lake of Texcoco - The Aztecs demanded tribute from other neighbouring states, but fail to control the tributary states politically 2. Emperor Itzcoatl - begins the expansion of the Aztec Empire through the overthrow of the Tepanecs - Brings about reforms in religion and in history 3. Spanish in Aztecs 1. Cortes - Spanish Conquistador - Immigrates to Haiti at the age of 19 - Participates in the conquest of Cuba - against the orders of his superiors, Cortes less a crew of 400 and sails to Mexico. In order to prevent his men from deserting him, Cortes burnt his ship after landing in Mexico. 2. Conquering the Aztecs Empire - November 8th, 15119: Cortes is welcomed by Moctezuma I. - Within a week, Cortes puts Moctezuma under house arrest and rules through Moctezuma - Moctezuma believes that Cortes was a god, and was willing to follow his orders - Cortes had to leave Tenochtitlan, and therefore left his men to guard Moctezuma - After Cortes leaves, the spaniards attacks some priest and the temple of human sacrifices, after they discover the use of human sacrifice - The Spaniards were captured and sacrificed themselves and the Spaniards were under siege - After Cortes returns, he leads the rest of his men out of Tenochtitlan and finds support from other tribes in order to stage a comeback - In the summer of 1521, Cortes returns and captures the Aztec Empire by killing Moctezuma I and executing his successors 4. Bartolome De Las Casas - First does to Hispaniola at the age of 18 October 10th, 2103 MID
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