L17 Race to Oblivion and birth of Technoscience
1. Turbojet to Rocketry
2. Why germany
3. Early Rockets?
4. From Dora to the moon – Race to oblivion
1: Turbojet to Rocketry:
Me 163 (1941)
• Worlds first operational rocket fighter
• Worlds speed record – 900 km/h
• Impossible to destroy while in flight
• It was too fast. – couldn’t aim your weapons.
Ju 297 (1944)
• Worlds first large jet bomber
• 4 jet, and 4 rocket engine
• Flown in USSR, but vanished after 1947
Ba 349 (1945)
o Vertical takeoff aircraft
o Power by 1 liquid rocket and 4 solid –fueled rocket boosters.
o When you combine those two = a space rocket
o It would climb 14 km in 1 minute.
o What about pilot?
He would pass out from speed
o Top speed unknown ?
Speed of sound 1230 km/h – the plane with engines on fell to the
ground = broke sound barrier , pilot died
Was basically the Wright model B in 1915
30 years later … picture of the earth with a Russian rocket
2. Why Germany?
• Technoscience – “big science’ integration of science technology, government,
universities, private companies
o Always used to kill people in great numbers
o Technoscience at work … within a period of only 5 years most of modern
technologies were created
o The Fundamental Shift: People changed from using technology to cope
with the environment to warfare and money.
• Atomic energy – the Germans were the first to split the atom, first to invent
• (First big technoscience in US was Manhattan Project)
• Modern turbojet engines and jet planes (the 262)
• Modern computers
o 1943 Z3 first modern computer (memory of 60 words)
o 1944 Z4 first commercial computer • Modern radio controlled devices
• Modern voice recorders
o 1935 Magnetophon K1
• World’s first guided missiles (autopilot adjusted the speed and altitude) – V1
(powered by pulse jet engine)
• Highspeed flight (almost 4 times the speed of sound)
• Modern design
• Modern rockets and ballistic missiles
• Space travel (A4 rocket) first man made object in space
3: Early Rockets
• First (slidfuel) rockets – China 13 century AD
• Kazimierz Siemienowicz
o 1650 first book on rocketry “Great Art of Artillery”
o Multistage solid fuel rockets
• Konstantin Zilkowski (Tsiolkovski, Cilkowski)
o 1903 world’s first book on space travel “Exploration of Cosmic Space by
Means of reaction Devices”
o Multistage rockets powered by liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen,
concept of space station, rocket boosters
o His design and ideas proved to be correct, but he never built a rocket
• Robert Goddard (18821945)
o 1919 “Method fro Reaching Extreme Altitudes”
Mathematical theory of space flight
Idea of using rocket to reach the moon
Working in US Goddard became a laughingstock of the
contemporary scientific world …
• Hermann Oberth (18941989)
o 1922 doctoral thesis “By Rocket into Planetary Space”
o 1929, launched first liquid fueled rocket in germany. his student named
• Wernher Magnus Maximillian von Braun who was the leading scientist behind the
german and US rocket program.
• Oct 3, 1942. Braun launched world’s first man made object into space, the A4
rocket (V2). He designed more the 12 rockets for hitlet ( A1A12). Most
spectacular were the A10 ( which was an intercontinental ballistic missiles) and