Physical Education, Recreation and Leisure Studies
March 8 – Black Female Athletes
Biological sex isn’t anchored firmly to biology
Discourse and Subject Positions
The idea of race is a social construct category
There is a discourse on race, sex, gender etc. Sometimes discourses will overlap
This article talks about the race, gender, sex and sexual orientation discourses
overlap onto one another
Discourse produces subject positions.
Discourse works to construct truths about the world.
You cant escape discourse. The question is, which discourse do you want to engage
Every discourse creates subject positions:
• Sets of ideas about who someone is and how they should and shouldn’t
• The truth about who you are is temporarily fixed within a discourse.
Everytime you fix a subject position, You are entering a discourse
• If a guy makes a lewd comment, and we say thats what guys do that is a
• If a guy starts crying, there are questions about your masculinity due to the
• Subject positions are out there before you exist. The discourse makes them
and all of us collectively create the discourse.
• Subjectivities are the ways people take up the various subject positions
available to them. Subjectivity is what you think of yourself and what you
wanna be. We aren’t puppets of discourse. We have choice but its not total
freedom. The idea of what you want to be is influenced by discourse • Discourse isn’t a bad thing but it does constrain you. Some of these limits are
• When someone tried to occupy a subject position different from what the
discourse constructs, they risk being incomprehensible and marginalized
Discourse and Truth Effects
Power isn’t oppressive
This is the postmodern argument that:
• Truth is an effect of discourse
• Your very self is a discursive production – you are who you are only inside
these frameworks laced with power relations
• The power of discourse is to make certain things true
• What the discourse allows is taken to be within the true
• What the discourse doesn’t allow is taken to be outside the true
• No one directs this power or is responsible for it. Nobody has discursive
power, it is located in the discourse.
• The discourse of what sport means goes back to the ancient Olympic
• We cant claim to have created a discourse since it has existed for many years
• We are thought of truth effects of the discourse (products of the discourse)
• Discourse is the vehicle that produces individuals of society • In the paper, we need to think of the consequences of discourse.
• Discursive power is located in the discourses no various people
• Because people themselves are products/producers of discourse
Subject Positions for Black Women
Black women have a number of subject positions available to them that differ
from white women ex.
Hargreaves was depicted as irresponsible when she died mountaineering.
The guy was depicted as a hero who died doing what he loved.
• If you work hard at a job = hardworking mule who neglects her kids
• If you stay home to raise those kids = lazy welfare queen. A potential
risk here is the neoliberal approach where people will say you should
be taking care of your son.
• If you love sex = ho. White women aren’t called ho’s
• If you don't need a man for sex = emasculating sapphire.
• All of these have in common a discriminating aspect. They aren’t
things that are compliments
• The article suggests that harris didn't have many opportunities to