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Oct 25 - sensory perceptual development.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Oct 25 – Sensory – Perceptual Development The development of sensory and perception systems can be a constraint or rate limiter if one is not functioning properly or if its development lags Sensation vs. Perception • Sensation is the neural activity triggered by a stimulus activating a sensory receptor. With perception, we have to select relevant info. We then have to process the info and decide if we need to carry out a movement. Perception is a multistage process in the CNS • Selection • processing • Organization, • integration if we are denied senses from one system, we rely on other senses. Our dominant sense is vision. Sensory Systems Sensory systems function as individual structural constraints • visual • auditory • Kinesthetic senses These 3 system influence motor pattern development Disabilities in sensory systems such as blindness can make us move slower. Blind infants won’t be able to reach and grasp. Blind infants would experience their environment through touch and explore it with their hands. If someone was deaf, they would not be able to tell which direction the sound was coming from. We wouldn’t be able to know how far people are from you. If someone has kinesthetic issues, we wouldn’t be able to know where we are in space. We wouldn’t be looking at our limbs at all times. We aren’t making sure our body is in the right place to catch a ball. Visual Development: Sensation • Infants have functionally useful vision • By 6 months of age, vision is adequate for locomotion through the environment. The vision development progresses with the body. If an infant needs glasses, they will have delayed walking movement patterns because their vision hasn’t progressed to the stage where they need to be. With visual development, experience is necessary. No visual stimulus causes refractive error • Infants have functionally useful vision. This means they can see enough to accomplish anything they need to when they are born. A race car driver’s vision is developed to judge distances and speeds very quickly and can make quick decisions in a split second. An infant can see a parents face, and that’s basically it. Acuity • In the first month, acuity is 20/400 (5% of adult level) • Infant can differentiate facial features at 20 inches • Acuity is approximately 20/30 by age 5 years and 20/20 by age 10 Visual Changes With Aging • Declines in vision have implications for skill performance and everyday living tasks • Presbyopia affects ability to see nearby images • Older adults need more light in dim environments • Cornea gets less flexible as we get older and it doesn’t bend as sharply • As we age, far sight is good but near sight gets worse • As age, there is a yellowing of the lens. This means that there is less light coming into the eye. That is why we need more light to read things as we age. There are things such as macular degeneration, which reduce the detail we see in images. We can’t see depth as well. Cataracts are cloudy spots in vision. Glaucoma increases in pressure in fluid in the eye. These disabilities can affect movement. If we can’t see close very well, we need glasses. Perception Visual perception involves perception of • Space, objects, and movement We can use retinal disparity, motion parallax, and optic flow for information. Perception of Space requires perception of • Depth and distance Info can come from • Retinal disparity • Motion parallax • Optic flow When using info from our environment, we are expected to see a 2d object and turn that into a 3d object Driving, walking, and any sporting skill require judging of depth perception. • Retinal disparity • Motion parallax • Optic flow Retinal Disparity • The difference in the images received by the 2 eyes as a result of their different locations • By comparing the slightly different pictures, we can gather depth perception Motion Parallax • Depth cues by moving the head or moving through space • Objects in space change locations on our retinas • Nearer objects overlap more distant objects as the h
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