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Oct 1 - approaches to studying personaltiy.doc

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University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
John Dunn

Oct 1 – Approaches to Studying Personality Continued • 1 question from guest lecture worth 7% • 25% on things about journals, publications, sources of information, associations, • 35% on working on the professional issues, ways to approach research, profession of sport psych • 30% on personality • Look at sample exam question on eclass • Won’t be any long answer questions • Vast majority of questions are short answer and fill in the blank • Know how to list and define (ex. Whatever construct, be able to define it) • Theoretical question, gonna have to describe and explain it • Use point form • If you use theory specific terms, then define it 2.) Trait Approach • Assumption: people are predisposed to act in a certain way, given their level on the trait-characteristic • Views human behaviour from the perspective of consistent and enduring individual differences • Ex. Competitive sport anxiety, aggression in sport, confidence The Big 5 • Neuroticism/emotionability • Extraversion • Openness to experience/intellect • Agreeableness • Conscientiousness Note: we cannot view traits in isolation of the situation if we are to fully understand and predict behaviour These big umbrella terms involve things that are strongly and negatively correlated No one personality is perfectly suited for being an athlete 3.) Situation Approach • Perspective: personality (and behaviour) is shaped by environmental influences and the reinforcements we see and experience in the social world • In this approach, we say personality is shaped by the situation • Observational learning – receiving or seeing someone receive punishment or reward for a certain behaviour • Hardcore behaviourists said that to shape someone’s behaviour, the subject would have to receive the punishment or reward • If you are directly punished or rewarded for a behaviour, you can shape someone’s behaviour • Someone can see someone else getting punished or rewarded for their behaviour and then can mold their behaviour Observational learning • Kids were exposed to seeing the adult model beat on bobo • The adult wasn’t punished or rewarded • As a result of seeing the adult beat the doll, the kids developed novel aggressive behaviours • The kids who didn't see aggressive behaviour towards the doll behaved very warmly towards the doll • Sport wise, as a parent we don't want a psychotic coach. • This relates to the power idea. Someone in power is looked up to by those lower in power • Ex. Michael Vick situation Social Reinforcement Classic Study: Bandura created 3 groups. The groups watched an adult beat a doll. Then they saw someone praise the adult for beating the doll. The kids saw the adult being rewarded. Another group saw the adult beat the doll and be punished for beating the doll. The reward and punishment aren’t being directly applied to the children. They are merely observing Conditions: Group 1: saw adults positively reinforced Group 2: saw adults punished Group 3: saw no reinforcement Result Group 1: largest number of aggressive behaviours – saw someone being reinforced and rewarded, so the kids in this group followed suit Group2: Fewest numbers of aggressive behaviours – they saw the adult being punished so they didn't wan
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