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Oct 5 - Measurement of Personality.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
John Dunn

Oct 5 – The Measurement of Personality • Important distinction between a person’s typical response/feeling (trait level) and present response/feeling (state level) Traits vs. States • “to feel proud [state response] isn’t the same as to be a proud person [trait]” – Lazarus Anytime you see something measuring a trait, there is notion of generality or typicality (ex. How do you typically feel?) Is this a state or trait measure? Look at the instructions or response options (ex. Never to always) Frequency response scale is an example of trait 1.) “Generic”/“Global” Trait and State Measures Problem: lack of situationality – specific predictive power Ex. If you are given a global trait measure for anxiety, the problem with these measures is that when we try to predict something state level, the level of precision is quite good. 2.) “situation”/“Domain” – Specific Trait and State Measures • Predicting A-state in exam/test situations using two A-trait measures • Sport and school are examples of achievement domain State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (spielberger) Vs. Test Anxiety Scale (Sarason) STAI Instructions A number of statements which people have used to describe themselves are given below. Read each statement and then blacken in the appropriate circle to the right of each statement to indicate how you generally feel. Don't spend too much time on any one statement but give the answer which seems to describe how you generally feel Ex. I feel nervous and restless Ex. I am calm, cool, and collected Ex. I lack self-confidence Ex. I have disturbing thought Examples of TAS Items • Ex. During tests, I find myself thinking of the consequences of failing • Ex. I have an uneasy upset feeling before taking a final exam • Ex. Thoughts of doing poorly interfere with my performance on tests • Ex. I wish examinations didn't bother me The TAS has better predictive power in regards to predicting A-state levels at exam time than the STAI 3.)Competitive Sport State – and Trait Measures • Measures with “sport” or “exercise” settings identified as the “situational context” for respondents to consider Sport Competition Anxiety Test (Martens) • “Below are some statements about how persons feel when they compete in sports and games. Read each statement and decide if you hardly ever, sometimes, or often feel this way when you compete in sports and games.. Remember to choose the word that describes how you usually feel when competing in sports and games.” Sport-Specific Modification SCAT- Hockey • Below are some statements about how persons feel when they compete in sports and g
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