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PEDS303 Lecture Notes - Frequency Response, Toshiba

Physical Education and Sport
Course Code
John Dunn

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Oct 5 – The Measurement of Personality
Important distinction between a person’s typical response/feeling (trait level)
and present response/feeling (state level)
Traits vs. States
“to feel proud [state response] isn’t the same as to be a proud person [trait]”
– Lazarus
Anytime you see something measuring a trait, there is notion of generality or
typicality (ex. How do you typically feel?)
Is this a state or trait measure? Look at the instructions or response options (ex.
Never to always)
Frequency response scale is an example of trait
1.) “Generic”/“Global” Trait and State Measures
Problem: lack of situationality – specific predictive power
Ex. If you are given a global trait measure for anxiety, the problem with these
measures is that when we try to predict something state level, the level of
precision is quite good.
2.) “situation”/“Domain” – Specific Trait and State Measures
Predicting A-state in exam/test situations using two A-trait measures
Sport and school are examples of achievement domain
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (spielberger)
Test Anxiety Scale (Sarason)
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STAI Instructions
A number of statements which people have used to describe themselves are given
below. Read each statement and then blacken in the appropriate circle to the right
of each statement to indicate how you generally feel. Don't spend too much time on
any one statement but give the answer which seems to describe how you generally
Ex. I feel nervous and restless
Ex. I am calm, cool, and collected
Ex. I lack self-confidence
Ex. I have disturbing thought
Examples of TAS Items
Ex. During tests, I find myself thinking of the consequences of failing
Ex. I have an uneasy upset feeling before taking a final exam
Ex. Thoughts of doing poorly interfere with my performance on tests
Ex. I wish examinations didn't bother me
The TAS has better predictive power in regards to predicting A-state levels
at exam time than the STAI
3.)Competitive Sport State – and Trait Measures
Measures with “sport” or “exercise” settings identified as the
“situational context” for respondents to consider
Sport Competition Anxiety Test (Martens)
“Below are some statements about how persons feel when they
compete in sports and games. Read each statement and decide if you
hardly ever, sometimes, or often feel this way when you compete in
sports and games.. Remember to choose the word that describes how
you usually feel when competing in sports and games.”
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