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Chapter 6 - Challenges to Dominant Ideologies - Political Science 101

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Political Science
POL S101
Davina Rousell

Chapter 6 - Changes to the Dominant Ideologies The End of History? • Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (1992) Liberalism defeated communism • - Ideological warfare between liberalism and communism (Cold War) - Defeat of communism = end. No more competing ideologies. Liberalism will be the only ideology • History can no longer be interpreted according to a grand ideological narrative • Criticism: - You cannot look at history as nothing more than an ideological competition Postmodernism • Not an ideology itself but a critique of ideologies • Recognizes the limits of “master narrative” type thinking • All ideologies are from the enlightenment - Liberty, fraternity, free speech Challenged the modern assumption of reason • - Ability to penetrate to the “essential truth” of things - Ability of reason to achieve progress - The belief that a real world exists apart from our knowledge of it • Label applied to art, architecture, literature etc. • Michael Foucault (1926-84), Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) • Suggests that the world is too complex to be fully understood, so the search for ultimate answers is futile • Diversity should be celebrated, none of our views should be seen as superior • The world can’t be objectively observed, but is socially constructed. • Don’t be like liberal democracy • Social construction = understanding that we all have based on the society that we live in At its worst At its best “Deconstruction” = Celebration of difference “destruction” (differance) Too oppositional Correctiveness for some of the excess of modernity Offers no alternative vision Relativistic Possibility of seeing the world differently allows for the possibility to live in the world differently. Chapter 6 - Changes to the Dominant Ideologies Feminism • Assumes that the status of women in society is unequal to that of men • Oppression of women needs to be identified and eradicated • Multiple strands of feminism: - Liberal (first wave, women should have some political opportunities) ‣ “First wave feminism” ‣ Late 19th and early 20th century ‣Argues that women should have the same formal rights as men in the public sphere (equality in politics and work) ‣Focused efforts on the suffrage movement, alteration of marriage laws (woman as more than property), reduction of income gaps - Social/Marxist ‣ Capitalist society is exploitative of all working-class people, but especially working class women ‣A transformation of society is needed to ensure that domestic life no longer has an economic function (social feminists) ‣Marxist feminists do not see the state as being able to assist in this transformation ‣“Women’s work” make “men’s work” possible, so the oppression of women is required by capitalism and its watchdog, the state
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