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PSYCO 105 (09/19/13) Psychological Disorders (con't)

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Eric Legge

PSYCO 105 (September 19, 2013) Topic 2: Psychological Orders (con’t) Dissociative Disorders  Cognitive processes severely disjointed and fragmented (broken up)  Three main ones: o Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; used to be called “multiple personality disorder”) o Dissociative Amnesia o Dissociative Fugue DID  Two or more distinct identities that take over the individual at different times o Original personality = ‘host’ o Other personalities = ‘alters’  Often host is not aware of alters but the alters know about the host o Alters also usually know about each other  # of alters can range 2 to 100+  Alters may be completely different from each other o Different speaking style o Different gender o Different temperament  Pre-1970  DID was exceptionally rare o Only about 100 cases total reported o Since then, numbers have skyrocketed and then shrank again  Possibility for skyrocket  more awareness = more easily diagnosed by therapists  Prevalence: o 0.5%-1% o More likely in females (9:1 ratio) o Diagnoses at 20s and 30s mainly  Even so, onset is likely to be earlier… in childhood  Just not picked up on by host yet o Seen almost exclusively in middle-income households  Many patients had a history of severe childhood abuse o Alters may have been an unintentional coping mechanism for the host\ o May be a common memory error… also there is usually no evidence of such abuse o Abuse mainly occurs in low-income households yet this disorder is prevalent in middle-income households o Real causes are still unknown Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue  D.A. = sudden loss of memory concerning personal information o Can last months –years  D.F. = sudden loss of memory concerning personal history followed departure of home and the taking on of a new identity (became a new individual) o May be brief or lengthy o Associated with stressful lives  Conditions can’t result from brain injury, drugs, other mental disorder, or as a result of normal forgetting  D.A. usually lasts longer than D.F. Schizophrenia  Large disruption of basic psych functions o Distortion of reality o Altered blunt emotion o Disturbance in though, motivation, behaviour  Wide range of forms  Symptoms include: o Delusion, hallucination, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized behaviours, and negativity  5 Broad Categories  Delusion – false belief system (usually bizarre and or grandoise) o Maintained despite irrationality  Hallucinations – false perceptions that seem real even though external stimulation is not present o Hearing, seeing, smelling things that are there  Disorganized Speech/Thought o Topic switching o No Coherence o Talking very quickly o Thoughts disconnected o Non-sensical Rambling  Grossly disorganized behavious o Motor disturbances o Inappropriate behaviour  Sexual  Strange movements  Loud shouting/swearing  Twitching  Disheveled appearance  Hyperactivity  Catotonic behaviour - marked decrease or halt in movement and muscle rigidity  Negative symptoms o Social withdrawal o Emotional withdrawal (apathy) o No motivation o Withheld speech  5 Categories of Schizophrenia o Paranoid o Catatonic o Disorganized o Undifferentiated o Residual  Prevalence: o ~1% of populatio
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