Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination
• Stereotypes: A belief or association that links whole groups of people with certain traits or
characteristics (they are usually found in jokes. Jew and a canoe difference=a canoe
tips=means ALL Jews are cheap. Woman can’t drive or woman can’t do math etc.=). THEY
are NOT always negative they can be positive like all Asian are good at math (generalizes into
whole Asian population) (they help use to classify our world and keeps everything neat and
easier to navigate the world around us. Even if someone goes against this, we still use these
stereotypes. If a lot of different exceptions are found, we create a subclass of these
• Prejudice: ALWAYS Negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain
• Discrimination: Behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a
particular group (behavior directed against a person because of their membership towards a
particular group). Often given the chance, prejudice▯leads to discrimination.
Racism and Sexism
• Racism: Prejudice (negative FEELINGS) and discrimination (negative BEHAVIOR) based
on a person’s racial background, or institutional and cultural practices (none equal
opportunities in a bussiness) that promote the domination of one racial group over another.
Can be an individual or groups level (i.e. person vs. a whole society)
• Sexism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s gender (sex=person born with vs.
gender=what people do or act as) or institutional and cultural practices that promote the
domination of one gender over another.
• Old fashioned(the way it was in the old times) or overt racism (plain
site/obvious/unmistakable and there is nothing quite about it). Like basketball fans that made
racial comments in the game while wearing bananas (African American like they were
monkeys). Euro cup 2012 (Italy vs. Croatia. The black members of Italy were given racial
• Modern Racism: A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially
acceptable and easy to rationalize (people have mixed/ambivalent feeling. We want to look as
tolerant and not want to bee seen as racist. But they still have feeling but they don’t show it. If
everyone else does it then you do it). Studies show: a participant was a mock jury was given a
case and seen if guilty vs. innocent sentence given. If the evidence was ambiguous=more
often a white participant will find the defendant guilty if black. If race is SPECIFICALLY
MENTIONED before the start, and the case is cleared ▯this time they say nonguilty, as they
don’t want to go against the group. They could be unconscious about all this process.
• Implicit Racism: Racism that operates unconsciously or unintentionally. It happens really
quickly without reaching consciousness). If the person looks clearly or stereotypically a black
person like dark skin + wider nose ▯ then you immediately provide implicit racism like getting
a guilty sentence really quickly and more harsher (more black=12% more prison time even if
crime was same)
Racism and the Implicit Association Test (IAT)
• The IAT: A covert measure (secret measure) of unconscious attitudes, it is derived from the
speed (milli seconds) at which people respond to pairings of concepts (e.g., blacks or whites
with good or bad).
• Procedure: identify whether the face is black and white immediately as it shows up. Firs
they have a word ▯ then a face. White▯P putton or black▯Q button. 2) This time they evaluate
word like good or bad word (agony). Bad▯P and if laugh▯Q button. 3) Now after the training
• 3) When black and good are on the same time people are slower at identifying the black faces.
If white and bad are shown as word, and white face comes up and you are suppose to say that white face= hard again. Black+ bad=black face is identified much quicker ( this shows
implicit racism and very fast, quick unconscious response)
• This test is not just for race, but for age as well. People show a pro age bias. Younger
fox=associate with good.
• Higher implicit racism predicts less eye contact and physical distancing in interracial
interactions. (This is not so bad but this can help to perpetuate negative attitude. If you expect
an interaction not to go well, they will make less contact, as they will be nervous/untrusting.
Intern this person that you are not making contact with will behave unfriendly and you may
start to think they are unfriendly).
• Implicit racism has been shown in several studies to be associated with negative attitudes
toward President Obama and his policies.
Implicit racism remain static. Explicit racism= 6 years old prefer white more then white. But as
they grow older, they change this as others may educate them. BUT implicit racism remains static
despite the age difference (the reason for this implicit racism is that 1) they happen automatics so
you can’t really change them. 2) we don’t want to break away from the us and them mentality. We
want to stay with the ingroup as we are very social species within group and thus might be
adaptive evolutionary. Thus our brain might be hardwired and we can’t get away from it. 3) We
tend to have repeated negative association with black individual (I.e. media, movies etc.) thus
identifying black word more with bad. it could be that is measuring a negative associations like
aging with death so older men=bad)
Stuart and Payne (2008): police looking for a man who was rapist who was black. They came across
a man who was not the rapist. The police thought he was him. He tried to take out his wallet ▯ the
police shot him 41 times. So Research Question: Do people associate black men with weapons?
(Black+ violence association)
Hypothesis: A black face prime (makes something accessible in the consciousness) will lead
participants to identify a gun (as a gun and not a tool) faster than participants primed with a white
face. ( white=tools more faster)
1. Saw Black vs. white face prime (200ms=very quick)
2. Mask (let a participant know that a target is coming up)
3. Identify target (is it a gun OR a tool)? As fast as possible without error.
Results: Participants were quicker to identify Tools when they had been primed with white as
compared to black faces. Guns when they had been primed with blacks as compared to white faces.
Thus these associations happen quickly, automatically that could contribute to the prowhite biase ( the men was shot because the police get a lot of exposure to black who are acting deviants and thus
these increase their subtle biases. Thus they associate a wallet with a gun▯shot)
• Despite the word “sex” being in sexism, it mu