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Petroleum and other materials .docx

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Renewable Resources
REN R360
Melanie Muise

Petroleum and other materials are transformed by industrial processes into fuels, plastic, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives and pharmaceuticals  Residues of human made substance can now be found in the air, soil, water and food web in the most remote reaches of the plant.  Pollutants that are distributed ubiquitously result in universal human exposure through inhalation, drinking water, and the food supply.  Some of the substances to which the general human population is exposed resist metabolism and excretion and therefore accumulate in body tissues.  The quantity of an exogenous substance or its metabolites that has accumulated in an individual or population is defined as a body burden.  Body-burden estimation:  Individual’s body burden of a pollutant is estimated by measuring the concentration of that substance in one or more tissues, usually by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  Chemical body burdens are complex and dynamic in a number of ways, and these characteristics make a full characterization of the general public body burden exceedingly difficulty.  First the body of burden of a pollutant is not stable over time. It reflects a dynamic balance between the amount of taken in and the amount excreted or metabolized into another material  Second, body burdens are not distributed homogenously within an individual: the partitioning of a pollutant among various tissues and fluids reflects the substances degradability and affinity for fats, minerals and other endogenous materials.  The choice of compartment in biomonitoring for any pollutants will affect the level of measured, the limit of detection and the recency of exposure being estimated.  Third, the body of burden of an individual in todays environment consist of hundred of syntehic substances.  Biomonitoring programs in the United States:  Public health officials and scientists use biomonitoring information for surveillance, control and treatment  The purpose of many biomonitoring programs has bee
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