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Gregory Wagner

Lec 28 BIOL207 2014-03-21 MOLECULAR MARKERS (cont’d) A. DNA fingerprinting a. unrelated individuals will have different molecular marker phenotypes b. parents pass molecular marker phenotypes to offspring c. if enough markers are considered, can decide whether DNA samples are from same individual, or related individuals, or unrelated individuals d. e.g. paternity testing each band on this electrophoretic gel is a different allele of an SSR locus • in this example, the child (C) is a heterozygote of genotype A A 1 2 • she must inherit allele A 1rom one parent, and allele A from2the other • the mother’s (M) genotype is A A 2as2shown below), her real father must therefore have at least one A a1lele • potential father #1 does not have any A al1eles; he is homozygous for a different allele (A A ) -- so he cannot be the father of the child 3 3 • potential father #2 does have an A a1leles; he is heterozygous (A A )1- 2 - so he could be the father of the child e. e.g. forensics prepare DNA fingerprint of blood or other tissues from a crime scene and compare this to DNA fingerprints of multiple suspects; fingerprints should match exactly (there is no mixing of alleles; unlike paternity testing) n.b. the marker used in this example generates multiple bands, e.g. a single pair of primers might bind to many different SSR loci B. Genetic linkage mapping and Map-based cloning a. same principles apply as used when mapping visual traits: • define recombinant and non-recombinant genotypes based on information about parents • count number of recombinant and non-recombinant genotypes among offspring b. linkage maps of dozens to thousands of molecular markers exist for many species c. linkage maps can be used to map a mutation relative to molecular markers a closely linked marker can be used as a starting point to clone (i.e. identify) the mutated gene; this is called “map-based cloning” e.g. cross a mutant (mm) with wild-type (MM). The mutant is A 2 B2B 1nd1the wild-type is A A B B .1 1 2 2 P: mm
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