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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Philosophy 275: Statement/Argument Review and Deductive/Inductive Arguments.docx

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PHIL 275
Yoshiki Kobasigawa

Philosophy 275 Explanations are different from arguments. Yet neither is it used as a conclusion. Ex: Your car didn’t start because you forgot to plug it in. -This is an explanation. -Although “because” is usually a premise indicator, it does not denote an argument. Ex: Your car won’t start tomorrow because it is not plugged in. -This is an argument. The part “Your car won’t start tomorrow” is the conclusion the arguer is trying to convince you of while being the conclusion. Conditional Statements aren’t arguments. Ex: If it rains tomorrow, then the tennis match won’t occur. -As seen, you have two component statements. However, neither one are put forth to be true. Before determining if the premises supports the statement, you must analyze the statement: THE INDUCTIVE VS DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS Deductive arguments are ones where it is intended that the premises , if true, would guarantee the truth of the conclusion. Inductive arguments are ones where it is intended that the premises, if true, would merely make probable that the conclusion to be true – falling short of guaranteeing the conclusion to be true. The distinction is that of the premises. Examples of inductive arguments: I’ve never lost my wallet before. So I won’t lose it on my trip to Africa. Assuming that the premises “I’ve never lost my wallet before” to be true, it makes it probable that the conclusion “So I won’t lose it on my trip to Africa” could be true while not guaranteeing it. *The matter of truth or not of premises would define it as deductive or inductive. Example: Smith said his flight arrives at 8pm in Calgary. It’s now 9pm. Smith is in Calgary now. While all these can possibly be true, they are not necessarily true. They merely imply that the conclusion is also true. Deductive Arguments: All the premises are true, guaranteeing the truth of the conclusion. Example: All F are 6 – All cats are mammals. These are categorical statements. No F are G – No cats are reptiles. All swans are birds. Categorical terms. All birds are animals. So all swans are animal
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