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BIOL 1020 (165)


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University of Guelph
BIOL 1020
Andreas Heyland

st Heartburn September 21 , 2011 - Some people secrete too much hydrochloric acid, or lower esophageal sphincter opens too soon - Result: HCI regurgitated into esophagus - Problem: Hydrochloric acid - Unlike the stomach, the esophagus not coated by mucus therefore unprotected - HCI causes burning Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Affects 13% of Canadians - Many have overly relaxed or damaged lower esophageal sphincter A more painful type of heartburn - Occurs more than 2x per week Some have no heartburn - Chest pain, trouble swallowing, burning in mouth, feeling like food stuck in throat, hoarseness in morning 1 picture  healthy lower esophageal sphincter nd rd 2 and 3 picture  chronic GERD Causes of heartburn/GERD  Foods such as citrus fruit, chocolate, caffeine, fried foods, garlic, onion, spicy foods, tomato- based foods  Large, high-fat meals  Lying down too soon after eating  Overweight / obesity can contribute Managing Heartburn/GERD  Avoid trigger foods  Eat smaller meals  Drink between, not with, meals  Avoid carbonated beverages, alcohol, coffee  Wait 3 hrs after to lie down; raise head of bed  Stop smoking  Lose weight if overweight  Wear lose clothes Food Alergy  An allergic reaction to food, caused by activation of immune system - 8% of children and 1-2% of adults (adults outgrow it)  Can affect many body systems -hives, swelling, contact dermatitis -vomiting, diarrhea -respiratory (anaphylaxis)  Typically caused hypersensitivity to the “Big Eight” Includes: nuts, soy beans, fish (most common among adults), shell fish(most people if allergic to one type are allergic to another type as well),eggs, milk, grain(more common among children/rice, barely etc..) and tree nuts (cashews, hazel nuts, walnuts etc…) < often not allergic to regular nuts if allergic to tree nuts Treatment:  Epinephrine injection to treat symptoms (dilates airways)  Strict elimination only known treatment -label reading, recipes, special products -food processing -cross reactivity’s (ex. Tree nuts)  Can grow out of it with age Diarrhea  Frequent (>3 times/day) passage of loose, watery stools  Other symptoms -cramping -abdominal pain -bloating -nausea - fever Acute vs. chronic diarrhea  Acute: -lasts more than 3 weeks -usually cause by bacterial infection, vu=irus or parasite  Chronic -lasts less than 3 weeks -usually caused by intolerance/allergy to cow’s milk, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease etc. Managing diarrhea  Decrease intake of tea, coffe, cola  D lactose, fructose (fruit and soft drinks)  D sugar alcohols (diet gum and diet candies)  D alcohol intake  D fat intake  Small frequent meals  Oral rehydration solutions (Pedialyte) Constipation  Absence of bowel movements for a period of time that is significantly longer thean normal for you - >2 days  Stools usually hard, small and hard to pass -bristol stool type 1 or 2 Causes of constipation  Traveling (schedule disruption)  Changes in diet  Some medications  Lack of exercise (D of peristalsis)  Disorders affecting nervous system example Parkinson’s, spinal cord injury Managing constipation  Increase fibre intake -soluble and insoluble -increase fibre intake gradually, too much causes gas and bloating  More fluid intake  5-10 servings of fruits and veggies per day  more whole grain >5 servings per day  regular physical activity - increase peristalsis Irritable bowel Syndrome (IBS)  one of the most common Gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders -prevalence 9-23% -only 15% seek medical attention  younger paitents (~20 y) and women more likely to be diagnosed Common symptoms of IBS  abdominal pain  early satiety, nausea  abdominal distension, gas  loose stools  constipation Connection between IBS and diet  not believed food intolerance causes IBS - food may aggravate symptoms in some people with IBS  most sufferes attribute symptoms to food -caffeine -foods like chocolate, alcohol, dairy and wheat -large meals -also; stress levels and certain medications being taken Good news  symptoms can be managaed -avoid trigger foods -smaller meals, regular meal patterns, sleep, exercise -I fibre and fluid intake - stress management -regular physical activity - meds to treat diarrhea/constipation  IBS does not endanger lifelong health -(but can affect quality of life) rd September 23 , 2011 -There are 2 types of carbs, simple CHO which are monosaccharide’s and disaccharides -complex CHO contain 100’s to 1000’s of glucose molecules Glucose: most abundant sugar molecule in our diet; good energy source (glucose and galatose paired up makes lactose) (Glucose and glucose make Maltose) (Glucose and fructose make sucrose) **they all end in –ose, which are forms of sugars** Glucose can be joined with one other sugar or many other sugars all together which is called a polysaccharide Starch: storage form of glucose in plants; food sources include grains, legumes and tubers Glycogen: how animals, including humans, store glucose, we store it in our 75% muscles and remander is in our liver Fibre: forms the support structures of leaves, stems and plants *Polysaccharides, also referred to as complex carbohydrates, include starch, glycogen, and fibre.* Soluble fibre It binds with fatty acids, can help reduce blood sugar and prevent heart disease Primarily soluble: - Oats, barley, legumes, some fruit(apples, bananas, grapefruit, strawberries and oranges) Insoluble Fibre: - doesn’t absorb fibre Primarily insoluble: -wheat bran, cereals, brown rice, veggies Majority of CHO digestion occurs in small insteine: -fibre, starch & disaccharides enter small insteine Pancrearice amylease digests remaining starch maltose -maltase digests maltose glucose sucrase digests sucrose glucose, fructose lactase digests lactose glucose, galactose Fibre is excreted from large intestine - Goes from small to large intestine where it *undergoes some bacterial digestion *adds bulk to stool (helps w/ bowel regularity) Diverticulosis occurs when bulging pockets form in the wall of the colon. These pockets can become infected or inflamed causing a painful condition called diverticulitis **the glycogen stored in the liver maintains blood glucose between meals, muscle glycogen provides immediate Regulation of blood glucose - High levels: pancreas secretes insulin - transports glucose into body cells - stimulates muscle and liver to take up glucose glycogen - Low levels: pancreas secretes glucagon -causes liver to convert glycogenglucose bloodbody cells -helps break down body proteinamino acidsglucose(in liver) gluconeo-genesis Glycemic Index (GI) - low to moderate glycemic response (GI<70) low to moderate fluctuations in blood glucose, insulin; smooth return to normal -high glycemic response(GI>70): increase in blood glucose, increase insulin, quick drop i
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