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cell structure and function

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MICR 2420
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describe the structure of a phospholipid components consists of a glycerol with ester linkages to 2 fatty acids and a phosphoryl polar head linkagesgroup some polar head groups may have side chainscharged phosphate head and hydrophobic tailwhat does the phospholipid bilayer impart to the fluidity and gives the membrane a consistent thicknesscytoplasmic membranewhat is the difference between bacterialeukaryotic archaea have ETHER linkages in their phosolipidsand prokaryotic phospholipidsbacteriaeukarya have ESTER linkages in their phospholipdsether linkages are stonger allowing archaea to thrive at high temps ester linkages hydrolyze easily in waterhow do membrane lipids vary among bacteriaalkyl chain lengths are variablesaturation regulates fluidity more saturatedless fluidcyclization decreases fluiditywhat changes can bacteria make to their membrane lipids they can convert unsaturated FAs to cyclopropane during starvation and acid stress in times of starvation stressconditions where membranes need stiffeningwhat are the variations in archael phospholipid sideBRANCHED TERPENOIDSchains polymeric structures derived from isoprene every 4th carbon has a methyl group strengthen the membrane by limiting movement of the hydrocarbon chainsTETRAETHERS tails of 2 facing lipids are fused forming tetraethers in this case the membrane consists of a single monolayerWhat planar molecules are present in bacteria cell planar molecules fill gaps between hydrocarbon chainsmembranes eukaryoteseukaryotes have STEROLS as reinforcing agents bacteria have HOPANOIDSHOPANES as reinforcing agentswhat are hopanoidshopanespentacyclic hydrocarbon derivatives that fit in between FA side chains of bacteria and limit their motion stiffening the membraneWhat are the main functions of the cytoplasmic 1 permeability barriermembrane2 site to anchor proteins3 energy generation in prokaryotes pmfWhat is simple diffusionmolecules flow down gradient
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