NUTR 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Red Blood Cell

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10 Apr 2012
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February 6th
Essential fats
- AMDR for omega-6: 5%-10% of energy
o About 11-22 grams/day
o We meet AMDR (salad dressings, vegetable oils, margarine,
mayonnaise)
- AMDR for omega-3: 0.6%-1.2%
o About 1.3-2.6 grams/day
o We do NOT meet AMDR
o Fish, shrimp, canola oil, walnuts, flaxseed, novel sources (omega-3
eggs, omega-3 milk, etc)
Summary of dietary fat recommendations thus far
- AMDR: 20%-35% of energy intake
- Ideal breakdown:
o Saturated fat: <7%
o Trans fat: “absolute minimum
o Polyunsaturated:
Omega-6: 5%-10%
Omega-3: 0.6%-1.2%
- What about monounsaturated fat?
o About 10% of energy
Monounsaturated fats are “heart healthy”
- They have low LDL-cholesterol
o Because they displace saturated fat from diet
- Are HDL-cholesterol neutral (vs. trans fats which decrease HDL)
- A reminder of food sources
o Olive oil, canola oil, cashews
Butter VS Margarine
- Butter and margarine contain same amount of energy and fat
- How they differ is in the TYPE of fat
o Butter contains primarily saturated fat
o Non-hydrated margarine contains polyunsaturated fat
- Result of this difference?
o Different effects of LDL-cholesterol
**Chart on Slide 6. She said to take a look at it**
Dietary cholesterol
- Found in foods of animal origin
- Little effect on blood cholesterol
o A high intake means we decrease our own internal production
- (Saturated and trans fats Increase blood cholesterol)
- Potatoes aren’t cholesterol free because cholesterol is only found in animal
products.
Putting it all together
- Aim for 20%-35% of your energy from fat
o Emphasize poly-(esp. omega-2) and monounsaturated fats
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o Decrease saturated and trans fats
- In other words
o Emphasize plan sources of fats
o Decrease animal sources and proceed/prepared foods
- Get your blood lipids checked
What about contaminants in fish?
- Contaminants include dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals (mercury)
o Accumulate in fatty tissues and flesh of fish
- Concern mostly for women of childbearing years and children <15 years
o High levels can adversely affect nervous system (brain, spinal cord,
nerves)
Guidelines for fish intake
- Predatory fish accumulate higher levels of mercury:
o Shark, swordfish, tuna (fresh, frozen, canned white albacore), marlin
orange roughy, escolar
- Safer choices
o Anchovy, capelin, char, hake, herring, Atlantic mackerel, mullet,
pollock, salmon, smelt, rainbow trout, lake whitefish, shrimp, clam,
mussel, oysters, canned light tuna
February 8th
Proteins and Amino Acids
What are proteins?
- Large, complex molecules found in cells of all living beings
- In the human body
o Critical components of our tissues (bones, blood, hormones, muscle,
organs)
- Like CHO and fat
o Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
- Unlike CHO and fat
o Contain nitrogen (N)
- Composed of amino acids
9 of the 20 amino acids are essential
- We cannot produce, or we produce in insufficient amounts
o Ex. Methionine, leucine
- Must be obtained from diet
o If not, we lose ability to make body protein and other N-containing
compounds
The remaining 11 amino acids are nonessential
- Just as important as essential amino acids
o Ex. Glutamine, tyrosine
- We produce sufficient amounts to meet our needs
o How? By transferring N-containing group from an essential amino
acid to a different acid group and side chain (transamination)
- Where do the acid groups and side chains come from? (Slide 18)
o Other amino acids
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