NUTR 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Lacto Vegetarianism

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10 Apr 2012
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February 13th
Our bodies have no special storage site for dietary protein
- Unlike dietary CHO (glycogen) and dietary fat (body fat)
- In times of energy deficiency, body protein broken down to amino acids
o First, small proteins from blood; then liver
o Then, muscles and other organs (yikes!)
- Amino acids then undergo gluconeogenesis
o Used for energy
What happens if we consume too little dietary protein?
Protein Energy Malnutrition
- Kwashiorkor (not common in Canada)
o Caused by a severe protein deficit, moderate energy deficit
o Protruding belly
o Some subcutaneous fat
- Good news: Reversible if caught in time
- Marasmus
o Caused by a severe protein AND energy deficit
o “Skin and bones” appearance
o Little or no subcutaneous fat
- Good news: Reversible if caught in time
Marasmus occurs in Canada
- Elderly
- Hungry, homeless
- Those suffering from
o Anorexia nervosa
o Wasting diseases (ex. Cancer, AIDS)
o Drug, alcohol addictions
What about vegetarianism?
- Practice of restricting diet to foods of plant origin (vegetables, fruits, grains,
nuts)
- 4% of Canadians are vegetarians
- Many different types
o See Table 6.6 NEED TO KNOW (SLIDE 9)
o Lacto- Milk / Ovo- Egg / Pesco- Fish
Why adopt vegetarianism?
- Religious, ethical reasons
o Several religions prohibit or restrict consumption of animal flesh
o Morality and ethics of consuming animals
- Ecological reasons
o Ex. Effect of meat industries on global environment (waste produced
from livestock; greenhouse gas emissions)
o Ex. Animals eat large quantities of grain that could feed humans; high
water usage
- Food-safety reasons
o Ex. Mad Cow disease, Maple Leaf listeroisis
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o Ex. Housing animals in close quarters increase antibiotic usage
(antibiotic residues in meats)
- Meat aversion
-
Regardless of reason, vegetarianism means animal products often replaced
with:
- Fruits, vegetables, whole grains
o High in dietary fibre
o Low in energy
o Low fat
o Contain phytochemicals, antioxidants (nutrient dense)
- Nuts
- Soybeans
Nuts
- 1 oz, 5 times per week associated with 9%-20% decrease in LDL-cholesterol
o No change in HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride levels
o “Dose-response” relationship
o Variety of nuts important (not just peanuts)
- New research also shows that nuts
o Are anti-inflammatory
o Improve blood vessel function
o Decrease in LDL-cholesterol oxidation
LDL- Cholesterol is the “key” receptor on cell surface is the “lock”
- If the key fits into the lock, LDL-cholesterol taken from blood into cell. This is
good
- If the key DOESN’T fit into the lock – if LDL-cholesterol becomes oxidized
LDL-cholesterol stays in blood. This is NOT good.
Why such positive effects? Nuts are:
- Low in saturated fats
- Rich in:
o Mono- and polyunsaturated fats
o Fibre
o Various vitamins and minerals
o Phytochemicals
o Anitoxidants
Incorporating nuts into your diet
- Use unsalted nuts in place of fat
- For example:
o Substitute butter with nuts on cooked vegetables
o On salad, in place of dressing
o Nut butter vs. diary butter, margarine
o As a snack instead of chips
Soybeans
- Legume commonly used in Asian cuisine
o Tofu, soy milk, miso
- Source of phytoestrogen
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