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Political Science
POLS 2250
Tim Mau

JANUARY 25, 2013 – POLS2250 – T.MAU Hawthorne Experiments (1924-1930) - Frederick Roethlisberger and Elton Mayo - Most important contribution to human relations school - No ‘one best way to work’ – studied impact of environmental changes (lightning, humidity, temperature in the workplace) on worker productivity - Hawthorne Effect – employees respond favourably when they believe people were trying to help them - What can we conclude from this? o Levels of production is set by social norms o Importance of non-economic rewards/sanctions (many other things like psychic awards – have someone who believes he or she deserves a raise and goes into boss’ office asks for raise – boss cannot give but offers them the role of director rather than senior manager – some people want praise or for their peers to see they are doing a good job.) o Workers often act of react as members of groups Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - people are motivated by more than monetary awards - developed a theory of motivation based on 5 needs o physiological – food, clothing, shelter, sex o safety – free from physical and emotional harm o love/belonging – affection and relations with others o esteem – self-esteem and esteem of others o self-actualization – reach potential - hierarchy is not fixed - needs to not have to completely satisfied – do not need to be 100% satisfied to move from one level to the next - needs may be on an unconscious level - not all behaviour is determined by basic needs Douglas McGregor - “Theory X“ o conventional conception of management o individuals are fundamentally lazy o dislike responsibility and prefer to be led o gullible, not very bright - “Theory Y” o work is natural as play or rest o control and punishment not only way to motivate o humans also seek responsibility o people are imaginative and creative - he used the work of Maslow – once the person’s physiological needs were met, then you could focus on something else - believed if people did not have these opportunities of higher levels of motivation achieved, they would ultimately be deprived and would not work as effectively as otherwise would JANUARY 25, 2013 – POLS2250 – T.MAU - if managers treated people as though they were lazy and wanted to be led, that’s exactly the employee they would get in return - vice versa for the theory Y approach Criticisms of Human Relations - school was criticized from both sides - human relations school ultimately built on this notion that there could be a perfect balance between organizations needs and workers needs but management was blamed for not seeking these harmony - provide employees with real decision-making authority - Peter Drucker o Key contributor o Hierarchy and specialization – problematic o Communication and decentralized decision-making o key benefits o criticisms o mana
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