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Lecture 2

POLS 2200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Belief, Religious War, Hegemony

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2200
Cindy Clarke

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POLS2200 International Relations 09/13/16
The State System
What is a state?
Term refers to a populated, unambiguous bordered territory and to the legal, political body that
governs that territory one power in charge (LEGITIMACY)
Has sovereignty over its own affairs and population
Has a monopoly on the authority and power to engage in war
Most ool used defiitio of the state is: a hua ouit that suessfull lais
the oopol of the legitiate use of phsial foe ithi a gie teito. Ma Wee,
Three most important elements are:
o Force
o Legitimacy internally used, support of the majority of the people (through elections)
Populatio suppots the ules of the gae, ot eessail the outoe;
abides and follows the rules
o Monopoly
What is the state system?
Organization of independent states
Within the organization, states are recognized as mutually sovereign
Relations between the states subject to international law and diplomatic practices
o Creates networks, rules, can be looked at as a grouping
o Regional state systems: norms of how these states interact changes, how they interact
mark them as different from international state systems, unique to certain regions of
the world
A balance of power exists among the states
o One entity cannot dominate everyone else
o States are all relatively equal in terms of power and economic strength
o Cannot have advantage over each other
Which school of thought believes that it is necessary to construct and maintain a balance of
military power?
Refers to a condition of euiliiu aog states. Ma ealists see it as ke to peae. Wh?
Realists believe that the world of international relations is characterized by armed states that
are competing rivals and periodically go to war with each other
o This is why we need a balance of power
o Some realists would say that states are technically always at state with each other
(cessation of war)
o Believe states are always in competition, looking out for their own national interests
What are the values that states are expected to uphold in the modern state system?
Security realist school of thought
Freedom liberal school of thought
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POLS2200 International Relations 09/13/16
Order and justice international society school of thought
Welfare international political economy school of thought
Why is the state onsidered a historial institution, fashioned y people? (Jakson and
Sorensen p. 28)
State was something WE created, the world does not have to be organized this way
o Toda, states follo teitoial lies, ut it has’t alas ee this a
How was political life organized previously prior to the modern state system?
o Greek city-state system (500-100BC)
o Roman Empire (200BC-AD500)
o Byzantine Empire, Constantinople (306-1453)
o Catholic Christendom, Rome (500-1500)
o Ottoman Empire, Istanbul (Constantinople) (1299-1923)
o Persia, India, China, etc.
Did these not have territorial borders? How were they different?
o Not the same concept of sovereignty
o Not the same degree of legitimacy in one central place
o Not always networks between these organizations, no defined borders as they
expanded often little interaction, very internal communication
o Sense of power diffused in a different way authority was vested in different bodies
(ex. Church and monarchy in Middle Ages)
o They identified by their religion, village, not their nationality/ethnicity/territorial related
How did we arrive at the modern state system?
What had to occur?
When do most scholars say it occurred?
Power an authority had to be concentrated under one single unified and independent social
Scholars point to two events that mark the beginnings of the state system as we know it
o 3 Yeas’ Wa 68-1648)
Religious war
Protestantism challenging the unity of the single Christian community under
o Peace of Westphalia 1648 eded 3 Yeas’ Wa
Settled religious conflict by acknowledging the religion of princes who had
become protestants
Granted freedom of worship in most parts of Europe
Granted princes in the empire the right to sign treaties secular leaders allowed
to do what they want
Religio eae ude the ule’s disetio, estalishig the foudatios of
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