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PSYC 2310 (454)
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PSYCH 1200 - CH 2 NOTES.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
Anneke Olthof
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYCH 1200CH 2 NOTES Scientific PrinciplesImmediate environment powerfully influences behaviour Each bystander assumes that someone else would help or call for help Diffusion of responsibilitypsychological state in which each person feels decreased personal responsibility for interveningHypothesisa tentative explanation or prediction about some phenomenon if an emergency occurs then the greater the number of bystanders the less likely any one bystander will be to interveneFormulate a testable hypothesis ask a question translate hypothesis into prediction test hypothesis research analyze findingsdraw conclusions build theories develop new hypotheses selfcorrectingTheoryset of formal statements broader than hypotheses specify lawful relations between certain behaviourstheir causes Theory of social impactused to explain a variety of human social behaviours Causesconditions responsible for an occurrence Hindsightafterthefact related past events can be explained in many creative reasonablesometimes contradictory wayso Understanding through predictioncontrol is a scientific alternative to afterthefact understandingIntegrated network of predictions Good theory must o Incorporate existing factsobservations win a single broad framework organizes info in a meaningful way o Be testable generate new hypotheses inaccuracy can be evaluated o findings be supported by findings of new research o Conform to law of parsimony if 2 theories can explainpredict the same phenomena equally well the simple theory is the preferred oneVariableany characteristic that can differ ie gender age ethnicity etco Memory personality intelligence stress etc Operational definitiondefines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it translate an abstract term into something observablemeasureable Selfreport measuresask ppl to report on their own knowledge beliefs feelings experiences or behaviour via interviews questionnaires psychological tests Social desirability biastendency of participants to give an answer that gives a good impression rather than one that reflects how they truly feelbehaveo Minimize bias by wording questions in such a way that social desirability is not relevant or by guaranteeing anonymityconfidentialitySuggestive biased interview techniques used to draw out allegations suggestive questions that are repeated can cause some children to falsely reportcome to believe that fictitious events are realPhysiological measuresheart rate blood pressure respiration rate hormonal secretions etc Behavioural observationsfacial expressions parentchild interactions marital communications etc o Argumentsmeasurements must be reliableconsistentArchival measuresalreadyexisting records or documentsUnobtrusive measuresbehaviour recorded in a way that keeps the participants unaware that they are being observed
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