Principles of Learning – Lecture 9
Inborn predispositions to learn were demonstrated with respect to:
1. The separation in time between the CS & US is a critical determinant of conditioning.
Learning is unlikely to take place in delays of more than a few seconds.
2. “Equipotentiality” premise – it does not matter what stimuli are used in conditioning.
Any CS will be equally good in all contexts.
- Pavlov: “Any natural phenomenon chosen at will may be converted into a CS… any
visual stimulus, any desired sound, any odor, & the stimuluation of any part of the skin”
* 1 & 2 are not correct – every species has predispositions to learn some things better
Taste-Aversion Learning – John Garcia
1. Exposed rats to flavoured water & bright-noisy water
2. Exposed rats to X-rays gastrointestinal disturbance + nausea
3. Tested drinking of the 2 waters after x-ray exposure
4. Control experiment foot shock
- Nausea could not be conditioned to light/noise, nor fear could be conditioned to a taste
- Taste-aversion conditioning occurs at delays of over 1 hour.
Stomach sickness is typically associated with something that has a flavour, not
something visual/auditory (rats drank much less flavoured water after sickness, but
almost same amount of light/noise water).
Pain (foot shock) is typically associated with environmental factors (light/noise) rather
than flavour. - Thus, type of stimulus does matter. To produce fear, you would choose noise or
light rather than flavour.
- This type of conditioning can occur over a long period of time (taste aversion)
Flavour-Illness Associations – Linda Parker
Conditioned taste avoidance
- Measured by consumption test
- Appetitive & consummatory
Approach component (must get to the bottle) & then ingest whatever is in the bottle
Conditioned digust (Gaping)
- Measured by taste reactivity test
- Surgically put a catheter into rat, pump flavour into its mouth, viedotape facial
- Sweet reaction: tongue out, use hands
TASTE REACTIVITY – measured of conditioned taste reactions
1. Flavoured solution is the CS: sucrose tongue protrusions
2. Drug treatment is the US (causes sickness) – sickness