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Lecture 9

Principles of Learning Lecture 9.doc

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PSYC 2330

Principles of Learning – Lecture 9 Biological Predispositions Inborn predispositions to learn were demonstrated with respect to: 1. The separation in time between the CS & US is a critical determinant of conditioning. Learning is unlikely to take place in delays of more than a few seconds. 2. “Equipotentiality” premise – it does not matter what stimuli are used in conditioning. Any CS will be equally good in all contexts. - Pavlov: “Any natural phenomenon chosen at will may be converted into a CS… any visual stimulus, any desired sound, any odor, & the stimuluation of any part of the skin”  * 1 & 2 are not correct – every species has predispositions to learn some things better than others Taste-Aversion Learning – John Garcia 1. Exposed rats to flavoured water & bright-noisy water 2. Exposed rats to X-rays gastrointestinal disturbance + nausea 3. Tested drinking of the 2 waters after x-ray exposure 4. Control experiment foot shock - Nausea could not be conditioned to light/noise, nor fear could be conditioned to a taste - Taste-aversion conditioning occurs at delays of over 1 hour.  Stomach sickness is typically associated with something that has a flavour, not something visual/auditory (rats drank much less flavoured water after sickness, but almost same amount of light/noise water).  Pain (foot shock) is typically associated with environmental factors (light/noise) rather than flavour. - Thus, type of stimulus does matter. To produce fear, you would choose noise or light rather than flavour. - This type of conditioning can occur over a long period of time (taste aversion) Flavour-Illness Associations – Linda Parker Conditioned taste avoidance - Measured by consumption test - Appetitive & consummatory  Approach component (must get to the bottle) & then ingest whatever is in the bottle (consume) Conditioned digust (Gaping) - Measured by taste reactivity test - Consummatory - Surgically put a catheter into rat, pump flavour into its mouth, viedotape facial reactions. - Sweet reaction: tongue out, use hands TASTE REACTIVITY – measured of conditioned taste reactions 1. Flavoured solution is the CS: sucrose  tongue protrusions 2. Drug treatment is the US (causes sickness) – sickness
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