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PSYC 2330 (214)


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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Page 1of 7StudyBlue printing of PSYCH 2330PSYCH 2330 Emily Pitre Mon Oct 28 084457 CDT 2013Operant Conditioning SR Learning The consequences of the response will do something to the link between the signal and the response The strengthening occurs between the stimulus or the signal S and the response not between the two stimuli like it was in classical conditioning Primary Reinforcers Unlearned unconditioned stimuli Stimuli needed for survival Stimuli that mimic the effects of food water and sex in the brain drugs Sensory stimulation and novelty do not last forever because novelty wears off Secondary Reinforcers Conditioned reinforcers a previous neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity of strengthened responses because it has been repeatedly paired with food or some other primary reinforcer Chimpanzees pressing a lever for tokens they began to treat the tokens like food because they have associated it with food and learned its value Social Reinforcers Stimuli whose reinforcing properties derive uniquely from the behaviour of other members of the same species praise affection attention They are usually a blend of primary and secondary reinforcers eg smile produces a fixed action pattern but if someone praised you with good the value of this word has been learned Shaping Involves classical conditioning First step you condition the noise of food with the delivery of food The animal will eventually move to the feeder immediately when it hears the food dispenser Once they do this you make it more difficult for them to obtain the reinforcer reinforce a narrower range of behaviourYou continue this until they learn that they have to press the lever to get food They have to make a clear link between food and pressing the lever Gradual modification of nonreflexive behaviour by experience Responses followed by satisfaction strengthens the bond between SR eg the cats in the puzzle box learning to press a lever to escape The Law of Effect Mark Bouton Instrumental learning generally works so that organisms develop responses that maximize benefit and minimize costs Good Sobtain reward learning behaviour increasesGood Sprevent omission learning behaviour decreasesBad Sobtain punishment behaviour decreasesBad S prevent avoidance learning behaviour increases Paradoxical Reward Effect Rat begins mating with the receptive female and is removed just before ejaculation and put back in the start box When the door is opened for the second time the speed of running increases This means that there was reinforcement Based on the theory though the speed should have decreased because they were not satisfied in the previous trial Reinforcer Increases frequency of behaviour Reward Praises participant for being good rewards good behaviour Contiguity Theory Guthrie Stopaction principle Any specific bodily position and the muscle movements occurring when the S is delivered will have a higher probability of occurring in the future superstitious behaviours If you are doing something in the presence of a stimulus and an enforcer is delivered you will make a link between the two Cognitive Theory Edward Tolmanduring operant conditioning animals make SS association Rs are highly flexible and the primary role of S is to motivate behaviour there is an anticipationexpectation eg if you train a monkey with bananas and then switch to lettuce and they get angry because they were expecting bananas 5142014httpwwwstudybluecomservletprintFlashcardDeckdeckId8313810notetrue
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