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Sensation and Perception February 26th 2013.docx

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PSYC 2390
Lana Trick

Sensation and Perception February 26 2013 1. Depth Perception  Determining how far something is  Really important in visual coordination  Going up and down stairs  The retina is flat like a postage stamp; we see a 3D image but are using a 2D retina  We have the problem called dimensional ambiguity; meaning there are several interpretations, we have one hue that reflects two different dimensions; the visual angle of the object (whats covered on the retina) and we need to figure out how big the object is (visual angle will tell you the size) and how far away in depth it is  Things that are close to you will occupy a larger visual angle than things that are farther away  Is it a big object or is it just really close to me? Is it a small object or is it just very far away? 2. Approaches to the study of depth perception  You take a lot of info or cues from the image to reason or figure out how far the object is (R. Gregory’s theory) (constructive approach)  J.J. Gibson has the ecological approach and says that perception is not like reasoning at all, but it is more like just naturally responding accurately—you don’t need to reason or use clues to figure things out, you just need to respond to the right information which is invariance (will not change) 3. Cues to depth  Physiological cues come right from the body; when something is close, the ciliary muscles bulge the lens and when something is far you flatten out the lens therefore the cue is figuring out when the ciliary muscle is doing to the lens, this is a cue for up to 3 meters away—when something is close, you have to turn your eyes inwards and cross them and therefore are using info from your muscles to figure out how far something is  Pictorial cues (or monocular cues) are ones that painters use to get an impressional depth in their pictures; relative and familiar size mean that we are familiar with the actual size of the object we are seeing so we can use the visual angle to find out the distance (we know the average size of a puppy so a miniscule one must be far away and a large one must be very close)  Overlap (occlusion) if two things are overlapping each other, the one in the front must be closer than the one in the back  Height in the field of view; objects
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