Nkrumah – Ghana
Lumumba – Congo
Banda – Malawi
Kenyatta – Kenya
Nyerere – Tanzania
Obote – Uganda
Nasser – Egypt
Mondlane – Mozambique
Cabral – Guinea-Bissau
Barre – Somalia
Toure – Rep of Guinea
Bella – Algeria
Mugabe – Zimbabwe
Africa is most colonized continent on the planet.
Northern African is arab dominated
Sub-saharan Africa is a range of many tribes, ethic groups, and religions.
Southern Africa. Two countries that were apartheid regimes.
Africa is rich with natural resources.
Most African states gained independence in the 60s-70s
Problems in Africa:
o Legacy of European colonialism
o Comparative trade disadvantage
o Legacy of the Cold War.
o Corporate exploitation and corruption
o Health crises (shortage of clean water, little healthcare, aids).
Pan-africanists and pan-arabists
In the 60s, many African countries were becoming independent.
Many Marxist undertones to these ideas. They were nonaligned Marxists (they weren’t
with the soviets).
The U.S. thought they were with the soviets. Patrice Lumumba was overthrown and
Many proxy wars were always going on.
Americans and Soviets were involved in many of the wars.
Civil war in Somalia (1986). Overthrown and a warlord took over.
Angolan civil war (1975-2002) was most important
MPLA vs. FNLA and unita, led by jonas s.
Before the war was over, s Africa, US, soviets, etc were all involved in the Angolan civil
Cold war essentially lasted in Africa until 2002.
Coltan discovered in Africa, greasy soil with traces of a rare metal used in
microelectronics industry. Africa is probably the only source for it.
Coltan mining is one of the biggest factors in deforestation in central Africa. People (and
children) work in these mines for long hours. Africa also has lots of oil.
Central Africa produces 4 million barrels of oil a day.
The US gets 16% of its oil from sub-Saharan Africa.
117 billion barrels of crude oil in reserves.
Bush gave command (Africom)
Central command responsible for Middle East, southern command for latin America, now
theres African command.
It’s a measure of how vital the government thinks African oil is and will be.
After the cold war, 3 big players in Africa: Russia, the US, and China.
They all have different techniques
The Russian technique is heavy handed, bribe people at the top, offer arms deals (or
military aid) and tie them to commercial deals.
Morocco – produces phosphate for fertilizer.
Early 90s, as the Russia