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University of Manitoba
HIST 1500
William M.Last

Africa  Nkrumah – Ghana  Lumumba – Congo  Banda – Malawi  Kenyatta – Kenya  Nyerere – Tanzania  Obote – Uganda  Nasser – Egypt  Mondlane – Mozambique  Cabral – Guinea-Bissau  Barre – Somalia  Toure – Rep of Guinea  Bella – Algeria  Mugabe – Zimbabwe  Africa is most colonized continent on the planet.  Northern African is arab dominated  Sub-saharan Africa is a range of many tribes, ethic groups, and religions.  Southern Africa. Two countries that were apartheid regimes.  Africa is rich with natural resources.  Most African states gained independence in the 60s-70s  Problems in Africa: o Legacy of European colonialism o Comparative trade disadvantage o Legacy of the Cold War. o Corporate exploitation and corruption o Health crises (shortage of clean water, little healthcare, aids).  Pan-africanists and pan-arabists  In the 60s, many African countries were becoming independent.  Many Marxist undertones to these ideas. They were nonaligned Marxists (they weren’t with the soviets).  The U.S. thought they were with the soviets. Patrice Lumumba was overthrown and killed.  Many proxy wars were always going on.  Americans and Soviets were involved in many of the wars.  Civil war in Somalia (1986). Overthrown and a warlord took over.  Angolan civil war (1975-2002) was most important  MPLA vs. FNLA and unita, led by jonas s.  Before the war was over, s Africa, US, soviets, etc were all involved in the Angolan civil war.  Cold war essentially lasted in Africa until 2002.  Coltan discovered in Africa, greasy soil with traces of a rare metal used in microelectronics industry. Africa is probably the only source for it.  Coltan mining is one of the biggest factors in deforestation in central Africa. People (and children) work in these mines for long hours.  Africa also has lots of oil.  Central Africa produces 4 million barrels of oil a day.  The US gets 16% of its oil from sub-Saharan Africa.  117 billion barrels of crude oil in reserves.  Bush gave command (Africom)  Central command responsible for Middle East, southern command for latin America, now theres African command.  It’s a measure of how vital the government thinks African oil is and will be.  After the cold war, 3 big players in Africa: Russia, the US, and China.  They all have different techniques  The Russian technique is heavy handed, bribe people at the top, offer arms deals (or military aid) and tie them to commercial deals.  Morocco – produces phosphate for fertilizer.  Early 90s, as the Russia
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