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Lecture 1

MBIO 1010 Lecture 1: Lecture 1

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University of Manitoba
MBIO 1010
Christopher Rathgeber

Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes Part 1 – Microorganisms and Microbiology What Is Microbiology? The study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked  eye? o ex. Bacteria, viruses, single celled eukaryotes Some microorganisms are visible to the naked eye: ex. Fungi, algae Some microbes are multicellular: ex. Myxobacteria, slime molds Better defining feature is cellular differentiation. Prokaryotes – little/ no differentiation Eukaryotes – highly differentiated What Is Microbiology (Continued) Microbiology is defined by techniques  Culture media for isolation and growth of organisms in pure culture Biochemical to study cell components Molecular and genetic techniques. Figure 1.1 What is grown on a plate does not represent the overall population as sometimes some bacteria does not grow on a plate. 1 Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes Why Is Microbiology Important? Microbes are the oldest form of life   Largest mass of living material on Earth  Carry out major processes for biogeochemical cycles Can live in places unsuitable for other organisms  Other life forms require microbes to survive. Million of years of go, there was no oxygen. Microbes started that for us. Bacteria can fix nitrogen and change it to a usable form which is ammonia for the plants. Plants create symbiotic relationships with rhizobacteria 1.2 Structure and Activities of Microbial Cells All cells have the following in common: Cytoplasmic membrane – Barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside  environment  Cytoplasm – Aqueous mixture of macromolecules, ions, and proteins Ribosomes – Site of protein synthesis Plasma membrane is used to make ATP and a barrier to allow the proton concentration to increase to couple for ATP production for the prokaryote Fluid and everything else that is within the boundaries. Cytoplasm = cells are made of 60 – 80% water . Cytoplasm is a polar solvent all intercellular components are readily dissolved ( ex. enzymes etc.) 2 Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes Figure 1.2 Genetic material – All cells store their genetic information as DNA  o The information is divided into functional units called genes Genome – A cell's full complement of genes   Chromosome – A genetic element carrying genes essential to cellular function Plasmid – A piece of DNA that carries non-essential genes (ex. Genes for antibiotic resistance) Genome - All of the genes found in a cell. Prokaryotes – one circular chromosome. The region where the prokaryotes one chromosome resides is the nucleoid. Eukaryotes – many chromosomes. Never have a living cell that stores it cells as RNA. RNA is an intermediate from DNA and proteins. Virus – all the genetic material within the cell is RNA and they work with that. 3 Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes 3 categories of microorganisms (based on structure) Eukaryotes  Membrane bound nucleus  Membrane bound organelles Complex internal organization  Division by mitosis and meiosis Figure 1.2 More of a cost that comes with Eukaryotes. Mitosis = asexual for the purpose of growth and repair. Meiosis = it can be restored when fertilization takes place at a later time. 2 Major Groups of Eukaryotic Microbes Protists – Unicellular or multi-cellular without differentiation into tissues o Protozoa – animal-like microorganisms  o Algae – photosynthetic plant-like microorganisms  o Slime molds and water molds – filamentous Fungi – Unicellular (yeasts), filamentous (molds), or multi-cellular (mushrooms). Algae = is like plants (it’s similar to them) they are small Prokaryotes No membrane bound nucleus or organelles  Generally smaller (approx. 1 mm diameter)  Simple internal structure Divide by binary fission  Most are unicellular 4 Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes Figure 1.2 When multicellular – it’s because they arrange themselves in communities/colonies. Prokaryotes are unicellular. When we talk about growing – we don’t mean about size. Cellular growth – cells dividing into tw, growing their numbers. Binary fission – takes a photo copy of their one circular chromosome. As that happens the cell simultaneously elongates and pinches off in the middle. The result is two cells that are genetically identical. Some bacteria's can do this in 20 minutes. Nucleoid – the area in which there is a high statistical probability to find the prokaryotes genetic material. They are small because they don’t have all the extra stuff that eukaryotes has. 2 Major Groups of Prokary
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