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Lecture 18

MBIO 1010 Lecture 18: Lecture 18

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MBIO 1010
Christopher Rathgeber

Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes 15.12 Filamentous Actinobacteria: Streptomyces Genus of filamentous Gram positives   Form branching hyphae and mycelia Hyphae produce reproductive spores for dispersal – conidia o Not endospores The capacity to branch (form structures similar to fungi) Spores are not the same as endospore structures. Found inside what was once the filamentous structure. 15.12 Filamentous Actinobacteria: Streptomyces (Continued…) Most are obligate aerobes  Live in well aerated soils Give soil its earthy smell - geosmins Also produce substances that kill or inhibit the growth of other microbes - antibiotics Example Streptomyces griseus  Produces streptomycin, a broad spectrum protein synthesis inhibitor active against Gram negative bacteria. Obligate aerobes. They have to live within soils that are well aerated (a lot of oxygen concentration) Microbial antagonism – destroys all it’s competitors around them so he can have the nutrients. We take the soil and abstract the substance and use it as an antibiotic Streptomycin = targets 70s ribosomes 101 Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes 15.13 Bacteroidetes  Large, heterogeneous phylum of Gram negative bacteria o Aerobes and anaerobes o Few unifying characteristics Example: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Strict anaerobe   Numerically dominant microbe in the human large intestine Produces enzymes to degrade polysaccharides, greatly increasing the variety of plant polymers that can be digested in the human gut. Gram neg. by definition. Contains puss, dead immune cells – abscess 102 Microbiology 1010 – Lecture Notes 15.15 Chlamydiae Gram negative cell wall type, but  lack peptidoglycan Obligate intracellular parasites  Unique life-cycle with two types of  cells: Elementary body Small dense cell, resists drying Allows infection of new host cells.  Reticulate body Larger vegetative cells Multiply inside an existing host But, are not infective Example: Chlamydia trachomatis   Trachoma (infection of the eye) Causes scarring and blindness. Doesn't have ability to accumulate there, it will still luck in your tissues. Elementary = Able to continue with normal actives and it also allows for the infection of the new host. More equipped to get into a living cell. Interferes with normal physiology of the eye. Babies get given this eye drops once they are born (causes blindness) No peptidoglycan so not classified as gram positive
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