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BIOL 130 - Chapters 3,4,5 and 6 Notes From Textbook.docx

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BIOL 130
Heidi Engelhardt

BIOL 130 - Chapters 3,4,5 and 6 Notes From Textbook 3. Thermodynamics and Catalysis a) Thermodynamics, free energy 3; 4 – p 143 & 146 – 155 b) Carrier molecules and biosynthesis  Enzymes bind to one or more ligands, called substrates, convert into chemically modified products  Hexokinase (an enzyme) adds a phosphate group D-glucose but will ignore its optical isomer L-glucose  Kinase – catalyzes addition of phosphate groups to molecules. Protein kinases are an important group of kinases that attach phosphate groups to proteins  Phosphatase – catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate group from a molecule  Lysozyme first enzyme whose structure was worked out in atomic detail by X-ray crystallography  Enzymes briefly form a covalent bond between substrate and side chain in the active site  Feedback inhibition – enzyme acting early in a reaction pathway is inhibited by a late product of that pathway  Allosteric – ability to adopt two or more conformations, and by a shift from one to another, their activity can be regulated  4. Energy a) Cellular respiration 13 – p 425 – 448 b) Chemiosmosis 14 – p 453 – 486  Earliest forms of cells produced ATP by breaking down organic molecules, using some form of fermentation (rxns use energy derived from partial oxidation of energy-rich food molecules to form ATP)  Without mitochondria present day cells would have to use insufficient process of glycolysis for all ATP  Same metabolic reactions in mitochondria occur in aerobic bacteria  Outer and inner mitochondrion membrane create two mitochondrion compartments: a large internal space called the matrix and the narrower inter- membrane space  Outer membrane is permeable to all molecules 5000 Daltons or less, including
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