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Lecture

Biol150-Planet Earth Movie Summaries.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 150
Professor
Ken Oakes
Semester
Fall

Description
Planet Earth: Seasonal Forests - Taiga forest contains1/3 of the earth’s trees; the trees can only grow for 1 month out of the year (can take over 50 years to grow taller than a seedling) - Lynx are constantly migrating to find food and might not visit the same forest twice - Moose thrive in winter because they can eat the conifer tree leaves (pines) - Wolverine can live in winter all year round; can eat more than it’s weight in food in a single sitting and what it can’t eat it will store for later - Pacific Coast of North America the conifer needles can extract moisture through the fog - The growing season is 6 months out of a year and can live for thousands of years - There is more living organisms in the conifer forest than in rainforests - “General Sherman” is the tallest tree on earth - Chilaean forest contain some of the smallest mammals on earth and it is not known why they are all so small - Deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere have broad leave trees - North America insects (Sicadas sp?) lie underground for 17 years and then billions of them immerge and infest trees; they immerge from their shells as adults with wings; they are clumsy and are easy food for forest creatures; there are so many that hunters are overwhelmed and the remaining can mate, release eggs, and then they die within days. They all die on the forest floor which is excellent nutrients for plant growth - Russia there are turkey vultures that have migrated from Siberia - Russian leopard is the rarest cat on earth - Leaves of deciduous trees must be shed so they do not allow all the water to evaporate through them - Madagascar bareback trees collect water in their huge trunks to prepare for the dry season. The foot long flowers open fully in less than a minute (happens at night). The moths drink the nectar and move from tree to tree pollinating different flowers. The lemurs, even though they eat the moths, are pollinators as well because the pollen gets stuck to their fir as they move around trees Planet Earth: Freshwater Venezuela: - rocks have been shaped over millions of years from wind and rain - moist air is forced upward in the mountains, and then condenses into rain (source of all fresh water) - tropical downpour almost every day of the year - water in the mountain will travel hundreds of miles towards the sea - Angel Falls is the highest waterfall in the world (water drops for almost 1000m); before most of the water reaches the basin below it blows away as a mist - In torrents, less nutrients, lots of oxygen (invertebrates dominate the waters; have to cling on to substrates very tightly to avoid washing away in rushing water) Japan: - giant salamanders are the largest amphibian (almost 2m long); only predators in the icy water, hunt at night. Have a slow metabolism and live up to 80yrs. Have sensory nodes on head and body to detect slight changes in water pressure (because of poor eyesight) North America: - salmon have the largest freshwater fish migration (hundreds on miles upstream); few predators to eat their eggs - grizzlies have learned to dive for fish - Arizona’s Colorado River has created a giant canyon (1 mile deep; 17 miles across at it’s widest point) “Grand Canyon”; worlds longest canyon system (can be seen from space) India - Indian River otters have some of the strongest family bonds - Fishing practice begins when cubs are 4 months old; only the adults have speed/agility to make the catch - Most otters are solitary but the warm waters support large family groups - Otters will actively harass the river crocodiles (confident in their group numbers) Africa - as lands flatten, the rivers slow - each year nearly 2 million species migrate to the rivers - Nile crocodiles can grow over 5m long (large groups of them); they know the wildebeest are coming from memory so they wait for their arrival - Use lightning fast speed to catch wildebeest (once latched on they never let go) - Lakes had 20x more freshwater then rivers - Siclid fish carry their young in their mouth - Dolphin fish detect their prey by emitting electric fields around their body - Smoke columns that appear to be coming out of the water are actually mating flies; they mate, fall back to water to lay eggs and then die Siberia - contains 1/5 of the world’s freshwater rivers - Micow (sp?) is the oldest river in the world - Contains many species including the only freshwater seal - The water is too cold for bacteria to decompose the dead fish/animals so there are crustaceans that scavenge Amazon - contains more water than the next top 10 largest rivers - empties into the Atlantic Ocean - can hold large dolphins (2 ½ m long); rely on sonar to hunt; work together to drive groups of fish to shallower waters - males court the females by picking up rocks and falling to the female (showing strength?) - waterfall bordering Brazil and Argentina is one of the widest in the world (1 ½ miles across) - waterfalls are only found in t
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