BIOL240 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Great Salt Lake, Thermoplasmatales, Electrochemical Gradient

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14 Aug 2016
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Microbiology Notes: Week 10: The Archaea
Definitions:
Lecture Notes:
- Overview of Archaea:
oCharacteristics,
Group that are only relatively recently recognized,
Tend to inhabit extreme environments
Very high temperatures,
Acidic or alkaline pH
High salt concentration,
oOptimal and required these extreme conditions in order to
grow and reproduce,
Don’t cause diseases,
oPhylogenetic overview:
Halophilic: salt tolerant,
Methanogens,
Thermoplasmateles: similar to mycroplasmic
Two main subgroups,
Euryachaeota,
Crenarchaeota,
- Extreme Halophiles:
oCan tolerate extreme high salt concentration,
oSome can grow in conditions where salt will precipitate out of the solution,
oTypically, chemoorganotrophs and obligate aerobes,
oHigh salt concentration has a role for stabilizing the glycoprotein in the cell wall,
oPotassium ions is a compatible solute in order to maintain water balance in the
cell,
oHigh sodium concentration outside, high potassium inside.
oSome can use light to generate ATP using non-photosynthetic mechanisms,
Mechanism uses a carotenoid pigment called rhodopsin instead of
chlorophyll.
oHabitats:
Green pigment is eukaryotic green algae that is predominant form of life
in Great Salt Lake,
Dead sea is also very salty and has high concentrations of magnesium,
Original marine environments have been subjected to evaporation which
over time has lead to high salt concentrations.
Great Salt Lake is equivalent to 10-fold concentration of sea water.
Marine salterns are another environment;
Different pigments are evident at the different salt concentrations
in the ponds,
Lake Hamara in Egypt—soda lake which has a very high alkaline pH of
10 and high salt concentration,
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