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BIOL 273
Katherine Wood

Unit 1Introduction Chapter 3 Compartmentation Cells and TissuesAdvantages of compartments o Separate biochemical processes that might conflict o Ex protein synthesis and protein degradationDisadvantages of compartments o Barriers between compartment make it hard to move materials from one compartment to another o Over power this by membrane transport systems FUNCTIONAL COMPARTMENTS OF THE BODYMajor body cavities cranial skull thoracic thorax and abdominopelviclined with tissue membranes Fig 31 o Cranial Contains brainprimary control centre o ThoracicBounded by spine and ribs top and sidesDiaphragm bottomHeart enclosed in pericardial sacLungs enclosed in pleural sacs o Abdominopelvic Abdomen and pelvis in continuous cavity Lined by the peritoneumKidneys are outside this cavityBetween peritoneum and muscles of the backPelvis contains reproductive organs bladder terminal end of large intestine The Lumens of Some Organs Are Outside the BodyLumeninterior of any hollow organ o Partially or fully filled with air or fluid o Extension of external environment for some organso Material not truly part of the body until it passes wall of the organ to the inside of the body o Ex E coli lives in our intestine but is only harmful if it passes the organ wall into the bodys internal environment Functionally the Body Has Three Fluid CompartmentsTwo main compartments three compartmentsICF plasma interstitial o Intracellular Fluid ICFwithin cells o Extracellular Fluid ECFoutside cells Fig 32Plasma fluid portion of blood lies within the circulatory system and forms one EC compartmentInterstitial Fluid lies between circulatory system and cellsBIOLOGICAL MEMBRANESMembranes that line or separate a cavitythin translucent layers of cells o Mucous membrane mouth or vagina o Peritoneal membrane lines inside of abdomen o Pleural membrane covers surface of lungs o Pericardial membrane surrounds heart Cell membraneseparates inside of cell from outside of cell o Phospholipid bilayers The Cell Membrane Separates the Cell from Its EnvironmentCell membrane or plasma membrane or plasmalemma o Physical isolationbarrier that separates ICF from ECF o Regulation of exchange with the environmentcontrols entry of ions nutrients expels wastes etc o Communication between the cell and its environmentby cell membrane proteins o Structural supporthold cytoskeleton together secretion of a substance into ECF uses scaffolding for support
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