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BIOL 273L (14)
Lecture

Lab 5 study questions.docx

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School
University of Waterloo
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 273L
Professor
Bruce Wolff
Semester
Winter

Description
1. Carbon dioxide in the blood at normal levels is in equilibrium. This is meant to act as a buffer to keep blood’s pH at optimal levels (7.4). When the levels of CO2 increase, it will also increase the amount of carbonic acid, bicarbonate, and protons. As the amount of protons increases, the pH decreases, and vice versa. If the pH is too high or too low it can alter enzyme structure impairing its function. 2. When CO2 increases in the blood, it reacts with water to produce carbonic acid. Lactic acid also decreases pH stimulating chemoreceptors to send nerve impulses to the respiration center in the medulla oblongata which controls the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. 3. The difference between total lung capacity and vital capacity is that vital capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be voluntarily moved into or out of the lungs. Total lung capacity includes residual volume which is the air left in the lungs after maximal expiration. Minute ventilat
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