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BIOL 303 Study Questions Set 2

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BIOL 303
Dragana Miskovic

BIOL 303 – Study Questions 2 Key Concepts  Genome equivalence and differential gene expression  Enhancers, promoter genes, and reporter constructs  Transcription factors  Genomic imprinting  Alternative (or differential) RNA splicing  microRNA 1. What is the ultimate test for genomic equivalence?  Genomic equivalence: theory that every cell in an organism carries the same genome.  Ultimate test: somatic nuclear transfer. Created the first clone, “Dolly” the sheep. A mature fertile sheep was cloned from a somatic nucleus, fully proving genomic equivalence. 2. Histones are commonly subjected to what types of modifications? What general effects are associated with these modifications?  Histones: proteins that package chromatin  Histone modification can strengthen or relieve the default repressive condition of chromatin. Highly modified – tightly packed chromatin.  Acetylation (addition of COCH3) activates transcription – addition to lysine neutralizes basic charge and loosens histones  Methylation (addition of CH3) can repress or activate transcription depending on which lysine residue is being methylated and nearby modifications 3. Why do you think enhancer elements are so important during development?  Enhancer (aka cis-regulatory elements): a DNA sequence that controls the efficiency and rate of transcription from a specific promoter.  I think enhancer elements are so important during development because this period of time involves precisely regulated patterns of gene expression. They mediate spatial and temporal control in development by turning on certain genes at certain times. 4. If you were examining the sequence of an unknown protein, how might you be able to determine whether or not it functions as a transcription factor?  Look at amino acid sequences. If you see a protein motif (transcription factor DNA binding domain) such as HLH, homeodomain, bZip, zinc finger  Presence of these motifs predicts that the sequence is acting as a transcription factor 5. Name and describe a technique that would allow you to define the DNA sequence to which a given transcription factor binds. What are the prer
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