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Psych 236 Notes.docx

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 354
Julia Roberts

Psych 236 NotesChapter 12 introductionHuman sexualitySexbiologically male or female XX or XYGendermaleness or femaleness feminine or masculine psychological and sociocultural vs biologicalGender identityselfconcept of being female or maleGender rolecomplex clusters of behaviorsmannerisms to which we are expected to conform based on our sex Culturally definedSexuality involvesoPhysical activities and behavior for reproduction anor pleasureoErotic feelingsdesires fantasies thoughts urges and attractionsoSexual organsHuman sexualityhow we experience a express ourselves as sexual beings gender gender identity gender roles sexual orientation critical part of t selfMultidisciplinary nature of the study of human sexuality1Historical perspective oHow various behaviors are viewed a different timesoMethod examining historical documentationoConclusion different societies have tolerated different behaviors and different attitudes2ReligiousMoral perspectivesoWhat is right and what is wrongoClosely tied to historical documents vs practice eg birth controloSex only for reproduction oMethod examining religious writingsoConclusion great differences across religions and sometimes within a religion3Psychological perspectiveoUnderstand why different people behave differently and how it affects them interested in the behavior thoughts and emotional responses of the individual Also studying the individual in sexual relationshipsoMethod case study experiments correlational researchoDifferent schools of thought or theoretical approaches psychodynamicoral phallic latency genital stages vs social learning and modeling These approaches would draw different conclusions about the SAME phenomenon oDefines right and wrong in term of effects on individual and others4Sociological perspectiveoUnderstands behavior within a culture eg cultural effects via socializationoNorms roles expectationsgroups and subgroups closely linked to social psychology Kinsey like Behavior f groups in the population of society as wholeoEffects of demographics on behaviors eg age sexoMethod surveys interviews observations5Anthropologic perspectiveoCross cultural range of behaviors They take a comparative perspective Often nonindustrial societiesoMethod participant observation with possibility of bias and accuracy issuesoEg sexual restrictive society vs a sexually open societyoConclusion there are great variations between cultures and we are one of the most restrictive societies 6Biological perspectiveoExamines role of sexual behavior in reproduction and the role of biological factors in sexual behavioranatomy physiology hormonesoMethod animal experiments difficult to generalize across species anomalies and correlational studies oConclusion there is more evidence for social and psychological factors than there are for biological determinantsTheories and researchTheorytentative and testable explanation
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