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PHIL 215
Brian Orend

Definitions of Core TermsEthicshow you should live your lifeoThe values and ideals that apply to our actionsNested in the definition of ethics is Moralityhow should you treat other peopleNested within morality isJusticehow should social institutions be shaped oVital social institutions that have a huge impact on how we get treatedLegal systemwho gets to make all the decisions decision making processGoverning processpolitical processEducationwhat should we teachReligionsome people include this some people dont how powerful are religious institutions in modern day society 100 years ago but still todayHealth carehow should it be structured and funded FreemarketEconomic Organizationhow the economy is organized and its core ground rules It has a lot to do with power and peoples opportunitiesHow should the economy be put together Should there be free market or regulationTeleologyVirtue EthicsDefinition the rootstelos and logosoLogosThe study of something or an inquiry into something biology is the study of life psychology is an inquiry into the human mindoTelosGoal end or purposeoDefinition of teleology An inquiry into purposeoAristotle an ancient Greek philosopher Said that what makes human beings unique from animals is Rationality this gives us the capacity for reason which brings us to asking the question of ethics how should I live my lifeAristotle believes that we should live our livesRationallyLive a life according to reasonTo the fullest extent capableoTeleologists believe there is a purpose of life and the point of life is to fulfill it to the best of your abilityachieve a goal and realize an endlifeReasonoWhat is the rational Theoreticaldoesnt concern us in an ethics classScienceMathematicsFormal logicPracticaldoes concern us in an ethics classThe application of reasonTo life in general and more importantlyto an individuals actionsoHow can I exhibit rationality in my actionsIf you try to be the best you can be Aristotle believed we could completely fulfill our nature as human beings oWhat is the human perfectibility What is the ideal that Aristotle is talking aboutEudaimoniaa Greek wordrootsEua Greek prefix that indicates goodness and positivityDaimonrefers to spirit or personalityDefinition Flourishing or well beingDoing well and feeling well at the same timeSummaryReview of TeleologyVirtue of EthicsWe alone have rationalityThis is natures clue to us as to how we should behave in lifeWhat does it mean to behave rationally in the practical spirit of our affairsTo pursue our own wellbeing and flourishTo fail to have that as your objective is to think irrationally and failWhat is flourishingAristotle says there are 3 constituent components to a flourishing life or EudaimoniaoPleasurepleasure is important but its not everything It is a necessary but not a sufficient conditionoExternal goodsThings that are not part of your characterFinancial resourcesyou dont need to be extremely wealthy but you dont want to be poor because you will be trapped in always looking for your next mealGood upbringingyou cant achieve excellence if you have had an abusive upbringingFriendsthey are morally important because they are your most regularly human relation and give you the opportunity to display moral behaviourJust societyyou need to live in a society that is not war torn one that doeseducationGood looksbeauty helpsoInternal goodsvirtues Personal characteristics that somehow are produced through free choicePhysical appearances are not a moral virtue having brown eyesPersonal characters that you have to work at to achieve things that are difficult to achieveThey are corrective of natural human tendencies We are not always naturally virtuous Beneficial to self and othersA characteristic that is worthy of moral praiseGreek culturethe Four Cardinal VirtuesWisdomwe would rather play than gain knowledgeCouragewe naturally are inclined to fight or flight responseModerationJusticeChristian VirtuesFaith Hope Charitywe are not naturally generousLoveApplication of TheoryHow to apply an abstract moral theory to a concrete problem in business ethicsHow would each other these theories solve a moral dilemma in businessEthical Issues in BusinessConflict of interestIntellectual propertywho owns it if intellectual property is createdAffirmative actionis it an appropriate hiring policyMandatory retirement Health and safetywhat kind of health and safety issues does a business owner owe to their workersTeleologyVirtue Ethics TheoryHow would you solve a moral dilemmaDecision process1What would a virtuous person do in my positionThis is a short term solution that teleologist would recommend2What are the resources and education that I need to become such a person myself This is a long term solutionStress the importance of educationFor Teleologists its all about education and character Its about becoming a virtuous person a person of integrityone with wisdom faith hope love courage etcCriticisms of this Teleology1Selfishits too selfish to be a plausible perspective on morality
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