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Lecture 4

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PHIL 101
Christopher Stephens

Philosophy 101 NotesDarwins twopart theory1Tree of Life Hypothesis all or almost all present day life is related if you go back in time you can nd relatives between almost all speciesaO1 two students turn in word for word identical term papersbH1 by chance the two students independently wrote up identical paperscH2 the students cheated from a common source on the internet favored by Likelihood PrincipleiPrinciple of the Common Causeif two things display an intricate set of similarities it is more plausible to explain the similarity by appeal to the hypothesis of common cause than by appeal to the hypothesis of separate causes 2Natural Selection natural selection is the primary explanation of evolution avariation mutation in some specic animals trait allows it to survive better than othersbthe variation has to be heritable for it to be passed on Arbitrary vs Functional Similarities SharksWhales cannot be assumed to be closely related or have an ancient relative just because they are both torpedo shaped This is because being torpedo shaped is functional for something that lives in the water being torpedo shaped is a functional similarityWhich is evidence of common ancestryGould and the Pandas ThumbO2 Pandas thumbs are imperfectly adaptedH1 life evolved by natural selectionH2 species arose independently of one another by superintelligent designDesign as Abductive Inferencebest way to look at Design argumentO organisms have complexintricate parts well suited to survivalreproductive successH1 randomness hypothesisH2 intelligent design hypothesisH3 Evolution by Natural Selection Trickster God HypothesisO Organisms are compleximperfectly adaptedH1 evolution by natural selectionH2 superintelligent designH3 trickster god God created each species separately but made them have the same traits theyd have if they evolved by natural selection FalsiabilityTestabilitycan the existence of God be empirically tested if something is testable it is falsiableKarl Popper
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