Chapter 14 Lecture Notes

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Political Science
POLI 100
Christopher Erickson

CHAPTER 14 LECTURE NOTES Politics Across Borders Nations and StatesThe term nation can be distinguished from state because it refers to a people rather than to a formal territorial entityNations are difficult to define but they have a collective identity based on such factors as a shared history and cultureAlthough people often assume an identity between nation and statesand national selfdetermination has often been upheld as a key principlein reality virtually no state in the world encompasses a single homogenous nationThis is obviously true of cast countries like the USA China and India but it also applies to Papua New Guinea where nearly 1000 different languages are spoken States and international systemsStates of a kind have been in existence ever since human groups first developed settled agricultural practices and a way of organizing themselves for selfprotectionIt isnt surprising that Westernbased scholars of IR have focused their attention on the development of states in the eastern Mediterraneanthe cradle of Western CivilizationsAs well as Ancient Athens and Rome scholars have examined the earliest known empires which were situated around the river systems of the Tigris Euphrates and NileAfrica also produced a number of empires like the Mali empire which thrived between thththe 13 and 17 centuriesOne of the most extensive and durable empires was the Chinese which lasted from the thth18 century BC to the 19 century The State and ModernityThe year 1500 is conventionally taken to mark the beginning of the modern ageAt that time the Chinese empire was far more advanced than European states in terms of technology military power and bureaucratic efficiencyIn Europe a key milestone in the development of the modern state was the Treaty of Westphalia 1648 which brought the Thirty Years War Catholics vs Protestants to an endo Catholic princes will have catholic states This upheld the right of rulers to organise their domestic affairs free from outside interference
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