Chapter 8: a relaively permanent change in an employee"s knowledge or skill that results from experience. Decision making: the process of generaing and choosing from a set of alternaives to solve a problem. Experise: the knowledge and skills that disinguish experts from novices. Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is easily communicated and available to everyone, the kind of informaion you are likely to think about when you picture someone siing down at a desk to learn. Tacit knowledge: is what employees can typically learn only through experience. Coningencies of reinforcement: four speciic consequences used by organizaion to modify employee behaviour. Posiive reinforcement: occurs when a posiive outcome follows a desire behaviour. Negaive reinforcement: occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behaviour. Punishment: occurs when an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behaviour. Exincion: occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following an unwanted behaviour. The iming of when coningencies are applied or removed.