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ADM 2336 chapter summaries 2-4

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Rami Alasadi

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Chapter 2 continued: Increasing the probability of behaviour by positive or negative reinforcement Positive reinforcement: increase the probability of behaviour by adding a stimulus (Ex: Pleasant) Negative reinforcement: Increase the probability of behaviour by removing a stimulus (Nagging) Decrease probability of behaviour: Extinction or punishment Extinction: Just ignoring it and hoping is goes away Punishment: Addition of unpleasant stimulus to decrease probability of behaviour Chapter 3: Perception, attribution, Judgement Perception: Interpreting a message in order to provide order and meaning to the environment Components: Perceiver: Experiences, Emotional/Psycological state Target: Ambiguity (RESEARCH) Situation: Context aids interpretation Perception biases: Primacy & recency (first and last) Reliance on central traits Implicit personality theories: Belief that certain traits accompany one-another when they don’t Projection: Managers projection onto his employees Stereotyping Why does it matter? Recruitment: Org practices are also Org “signals” Workforce diversity: Detrimental stereotypes (age, race, sexuality) Selection interview: “Ideal” Candidate, Primacy effect, heavily weighted negatives, compared to other cadidates Performance appraisal: Looks mostly at recency, Rater errors (leniency, harshness), Similar to me, Halo- Horns (generalisation made on incomplete appraisails) Attributions: Def: How motives are assigned to explain behaviour Dispositional or situational Dispositional: Blame the person Situational: Blame the situation (bus was late) Cues: Consistency, Consensus, Distinctiveness Consistency: Is it a recurring behaviour? Consensus: Does this behaviour affect most people or just one person? Distinctiveness: Is it distinct to one situation or many? EX: Smith is always takes long breaks, his co-workers do not, he also took long breaks at his old job -Highly consistent (does this often) -Distinctive (Is the only one that does this) -Low distinctiveness (did this at old jobs/not new behaviour) Chapter 4: Values, Attitudes & Work behaviour Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affaires over others -What we consider good and bad -Values and motivational are very general -People tend to hold values like achievement, conformity, and tradition Different values depending on the age group Differences in values: General differences in work values or the way values are expressed is important because when a person’s values match those of the Org. it leads to more positive attitudes Cultural differences: Basic work related values that differ across cultures Cross cultural differences must be acknowledged in order to conduct business!! Hofstede’s Study: 5 dimensions that work-related values differ across cultures  Power distance: The degree of inequality on the people in the society  Uncertainty avoidance: The level of tolerance to uncertainty or ambiguity  Masculinity: the degree to which a society focuses on male work role model (Control, power,..)  Individualism:The degree to which a society reinforces individual or collective agreements in relationships  Long-term ori
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